• Posted on March 26, 2017 12:00 pm
    Joseph Forbes
    No comments

    This list describes common causes of slow Internet connections in homes. A poorly performing connection can be caused by broadband router configuration errors, wireless interference, or any of several other technical issues with your home network. Use these tips to not only diagnose but also fix the causes of slow Internet connections. Many of them apply to wireless hotspot connections, too. 1 Check Your Broadband Router Settings stefanamer/iStock As the centerpiece of a network, a broadband router can be responsible for slow Internet connections if configured improperly. For example, the MTU setting of your router will lead to performance issues if set too high or too low. Ensure your router's settings are all consistent with the manufacturer's and your Internet Service Provider (ISP) recommendations. Carefully record any changes you make to your router's configuration so that you can undo them later if necessary. 2 Avoid Wireless Signal Interference United States Radio Spectrum - Frequency Allocations. www.ntia.doc.gov Wi-Fi and other types of wireless connections may perform poorly due to signal interference, which requires computers to continually resend messages to overcome signal issues. Household appliances and even your neighbors' wireless networks can interfere with your computers. To avoid slow Internet connections due to signal interference, reposition your router for better performance and change your Wi-Fi channel number. 3 Beware of Worms... Internet Worms An Internet worm is a malicious software program that spreads from device to device through computer networks. If any of your computers are infected by an Internet worm, they may begin spontaneously generating network traffic without your knowledge, causing your Internet connection to appear slow. Keep up-to-date antivirus software running to catch and remove these worms from your devices. 4 Stop Network Applications Running in the Background Some software applications you install on a computer run as so-called background processes - hidden behind other apps or minimized to the system tray - quietly consuming network resources. Unlike worms, these applications are designed to do useful work and not the kind a person wishes to remove from their device normally. Games and programs that work with videos in particular can heavily utilize your network and cause connections to appear slow. It's easy to forget these applications are running. Always check computers for any programs running in the background when troubleshooting a slow network. 5 Isolate and Repair Faulty Network Equipment When routers, modems or cables malfunction, they won't properly support network traffic at full speeds. Certain technical glitches in network equipment negatively affect performance even though connections themselves can sometimes still be made. To troubleshoot potentially faulty equipment, temporarily re-arrange and re-configure your gear while experimenting with different configurations. Systematically try bypassing the router, swapping cables, and tests with multiple devices to isolate the slow performance to a specific component of the system. Then decide if it can somehow be upgraded or repaired... or if it needs to be replaced. 6 Work with Your Internet Service Provider (ISP) if Necessary Command Prompt - Ping - Unresponsive IP Address. Bradley Mitchell / About.com Internet speed ultimately depends on the service provider. Your ISP may change their network's configuration or suffer technical difficulties that inadvertently cause your Internet connection to run slowly. ISPs may also intentionally install filters or controls on the network that can lower your performance. Don't hesitate to contact your service provider if you suspect they are responsible for a slow Internet connection.

    Blog Entry, DATA, Internet
  • Posted on March 19, 2017 11:16 am
    Joseph Forbes
    No comments

    Websites getting blacklisted is a very extensive problem faced by businesses. When it happens, web masters panic and the vendors face an interruption in their daily business as they struggle to assist their concerned consumers to clean their websites and return online. It can happen due to a variety of reasons. Even Google may blacklist a website, and on an average, it's been estimated that about 10,000+ websites get blacklisted on a daily basis.​ Getting to Know about the Mishap Many businesses cannot afford to install costly monitoring programs or employ security experts and often take time to realize that their site has been blacklisted. Almost 50% of the business owners are warned about the compromised site by a search engine, browser or other alert when they try to visit their own site. Time is the biggest enemy of blacklisted websites as every minute that the site remains blocked is precious and leads to revenue losses due to the bad impact on its marketing activities and eventually sales and loss of the organization’s reputation. Be Prepared to Deal with the Problem It might take several hours or even days to get rid of the malware and protect a website based on the infection’s severity; it also depends on whether or not the website is secured by an effective and frequent backup regimen. The foremost part of the fix is eradication of the malware and restoration of the website. Even after this process, the web masters have to request Google to review the site before getting the block removed. Dealing with Black-listed Websites Web hosts find it to be a nightmare to handle blacklisted client websites, straining their operations and possibly weakening their credibility. Clients generally fail to understand the reason behind the blacklisting of their site and tend to unjustly put the blame on their host. Smart hosting vendors should extend assistance to their customers and help them get over the trouble at the earliest. Hosts that provide robust tools to solve the problem of their clients will finally instil a sense of loyalty and confidence in them. Vendors that lack these tools may waste considerable resources on remediation and in the process, even lose their valuable clients. Blacklist remediation will not be an extensive ordeal if the affected site owners have smart automatic backup regimen in place as they can restore the functionality and files of the affected site easily with the right tools. To help their clients, hosting vendors should be aware of the following remediation steps so that it can be implemented efficiently and quickly as soon as a client finds out that his website has been blacklisted. Look for Malware Check for malware by running efficient antivirus programs on all the computers used by an admin for logging into the website. Also, scrutinize the server logs for any activity by the admin whose computer is infected. Change the logins and passwords for all accounts, including those of database access, FTP, CMS accounts, and system administrator. Ensure that strong passwords are set. A sophisticated hosting provider should let their customers to make these changes easily on a dashboard interface. Let customers know how important it’s to install the latest editions of Operating Systems, apps, blogging platform, CMS, and plug-ins. Delete any new or modified file that has been added to the server after detection of the problem and execute a complete system restore. The restoration can be completed through a single click if you provide a cloud-oriented auto backup and disaster recovery services to your clients. If not, the clients will have to find the latest clean editions of each modified file and manually download them. Request Google to Review the Site and Remove the Blacklist This is the best way for hosting vendors to handle the remediation as soon as possible; just ensure that the tools required for getting a customer’s website back online are ready with you always.

    Blog Entry, DATA, Internet
  • Posted on March 14, 2017 11:45 am
    Joseph Forbes
    No comments

    Several small and midsize businesses are susceptible to Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks. What would be the best way for such businesses to handle this problem? Plan ahead – this is what security experts suggest based on their experiences in the past! A majority of the small businesses and start-ups have small teams with very little resources to defend DDoS attacks. As indicated by the name of the attack, it stops users from accessing the services and a site by hurling lot of data against the firm’s web and hosting services. If you are wondering if DDoS attacks are really so common that businesses need to be concerned about it, statistics indicate that around 2,000 such attacks happen on a daily basis costing a loss of revenue in the range of $5,000 - $40,000 per hour for businesses. Hackers can be fake vandalists, competitors, hactivists or extortionists. If your company isn’t equipped with professional network security experts, here are few things you can do to stay safe from DDoS attacks. Stay Prepared Every business should have a disaster recovery plan ready for DDoS attacks. Some of the best practices should include identifying the key employees who are given the responsibility. Establish the roles of every team member, their tasks and requirements. Give the team the needed practice on a mock basis so that those involved are aware of how to handle things when a disaster happens inevitably. Work with your internal PR and IT teams, ISP and hosting providers to recognize the susceptible aspects of failure, routes of escape and technical gaps. Understand DDoS Attack  There are many well-tested DDoS prevention programs that run advanced algorithms to identify various kinds of traffic. They try to sniff out, identify and filter different kinds of benign and malevolent bots and allow only legitimate traffic. It’s not easy to judge from just one instance if the hack is just amateurish or professional, though it’s fairly assumed that any network attack that crosses 50 Gbps is likely to be professional. Mostly multiplied under the inoffensive category of 'network security programs,' few of the very common hack devices are called stressors or booters. As implied by the name, these devices intensify and focus the payload of DDoS. Be Ready to Respond with Your Guns As in all cases of disaster reaction, stay calm without panicking. Ensure that your services are up and running; give your customers a brief. Your team can respond readily only if you’ve prepared properly. Co-ordinate with your team members and optimize the tactics for the disaster response. Once the attack is mitigated by your tech team, ensure that the communication team is ready to reveal the details to the press and legal team is prepared to handle the possible regulatory and compliance part. If you are asked to pay the attacker a ransom, don’t do it as this will only mark your organization and they may return for more. Once you are identified this way, other hackers may also sense it and come your way. Learn and Implement Once the attack subsides, try to learn things from the attack. Analyse strongly as to what went right and what went wrong.  Ensure that your legal and IT teams collect the required forensic information. Create a communication protocol to deal with the internal team queries, your clients and the press. Try to detect the network holdups from the attack and select an infrastructure with inherent resiliency. Analysis and communication are the two aspects that will go a long way in preparing for the next attack and enhance your team morale. And, you should be wary of the latest threats emerging in the cyber world such as the latest DDoS Extortion Attack.

    Blog Entry, DATA, Hacking
  • Posted on March 10, 2017 12:02 pm
    Joseph Forbes
    No comments

    The term Denial of Service (DoS) refers to events that render systems on a computer network temporarily unusable.  Denials of service can happen accidentally as the result of actions taken by network users or administrators, but often they are malicious DoS attacks. One of the more recent DDoS attacks (more on these below) occurred on Friday, October 21, 2016, and rendered many popular websites completely unusable for most of the day. Denial of Service Attacks DoS attacks exploit various weaknesses in computer network technologies. They may target servers, network routers, or network communication links. They can cause computers and routers to shut down ("crash") and links to bog down. They usually do not cause permanent damage. Perhaps the most famous DoS technique is Ping of Death. The Ping of Death attack works by generating and sending special network messages (specifically, ICMP packets of non-standard sizes) that cause problems for systems that receive them. In the early days of the Web, this attack could cause unprotected Internet servers to crash quickly. Modern Web sites have generally all been safeguarded against DoS attacks but they're certainly not immune. Ping of Death is one kind of buffer overflow attack. These attacks overrun a target computer's memory and break its programming logic by sending things of larger sizes than it was designed to handle. Other basic types of DoS attacks involve flooding a network with useless activity so that genuine traffic cannot get through. The TCP/IP SYN and smurf  attacks are two common examples. remotely overloading a system's CPU so that valid requests cannot be processed. changing permissions or breaking authorization logic to prevent users from logging into a system. One common example involves triggering a rapid series of false login attempts that lock out accounts from being able to log in. deleting or interfering with specific critical applications or services to prevent their normal operation (even if the system and network overall are functional). DoS attacks are most common against Web sites that provide controversial information or services. The financial cost of these attacks can be very large. Those involved in planning or executing attacks are subject to criminal prosecution as in the case of Jake Davis (pictured) of the hacking group Lulzsec. DDoS - Distributed Denial of Service Traditional denial of service attacks are triggered by just one person or computer. In comparison, a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack involves multiple parties. Malicious DDoS attacks on the Internet, for example, organize large numbers of computers into a coordinated group called a botnet that are then capable of flooding a target site with immense amounts of network traffic. Accidental DoS Denials of service can also be triggered unintentionally in several ways: many users suddenly trying to access a network or server at the same time, such as visiting a public Web site where a major social event is happening network administrators accidentally unplugging a cable, or incorrectly configuring routers a system becoming infected with a computer virus or worm

    Blog Entry, DATA, KnowledgeBase (KB)
  • Posted on January 29, 2017 11:30 am
    Joseph Forbes
    No comments

    In wireless networking, dual band equipment is capable of transmitting in either of two different standard frequency ranges.  Modern Wi-Fi home networks feature dual band broadband routers that support both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz channels. The History of Dual Band Wireless Routers First generation home network routers produced during the late 1990s and early 2000s contained a single 802.11b Wi-Fi radio operating on the 2.4 GHz band. At the same time, a significant number of business networks supported 802.11a (5 GHz) devices. The first dual band Wi-Fi routers were built to support mixed networks having both 802.11a and 802.11b clients. Starting with 802.11n, Wi-Fi standards began including simultaneous dual band 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz support as a standard feature. Two Examples of Dual Band Wireless Routers The TP-LINK Archer C7 AC1750 Dual Band Wireless AC Gigabit Router (buy on Amazon.com) has 450Mbps at 2.4GHz and 1300Mbps at 5GHz, as well as IP-based bandwidth control so you can monitor the bandwidth of all the devices connected to your router. The NETGEAR N750 Dual Band Wi-Fi Gigabit Router (buy on Amazon.com) is for medium to large-sized homes and also comes with a genie app, so you can keep tabs on your network and get help troubleshooting if any repairs are needed. Dual Band Wi-Fi Adapters Dual-band Wi-Fi network adapters contain both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz wireless radios similar to dual-band routers. In the early days of Wi-Fi, some laptop Wi-Fi adapters supported both 802.11a and 802.11b/g radios so that a person could connect their computer to business networks during the workday and home networks on nights and weekends. Newer 802.11n and 802.11ac adapters can also be configured to use either band (but not both at the same time). Dual Band Phones Similar to dual band wireless network equipment, some cell phones also use two (or more) bands for cellular communications separate from Wi-Fi. Dual band phones were originally created to support 3G GPRS or EDGE data services on 0.85 GHz, 0.9 GHz or 1.9 GHz radio frequencies. Phones sometimes support tri band (three) or quad band (four) different cellular transmission frequency ranges in order to maximize compatibility with different kinds of phone network, helpful while roaming or traveling. Cell modems switch between different bands but do not support simultaneous dual band connections. Benefits of Dual Band Wireless Networking By supplying separate wireless interfaces for each band, dual band 802.11n and 802.11ac routers provide maximum flexibility in setting up a home network. Some home devices require the legacy compatibility and greater signal reach that 2.4 GHz offers while others may require the additional network bandwidth that 5 GHz offers: Dual-band routers provide connections designed for the needs of each. Many Wi-Fi home networks suffer from wireless interference due to the prevalence of 2.4 GHz consumer gadgets. The ability to utilize 5 GHz on a dual band router helps avoid these issues. Dual band routers also incorporate Multiple-In Multiple-Out (MIMO) radio configurations. The combination of multiple radios on one band together with dual-band support together provide much higher performance home networking than what single band routers can offer.

    Blog Entry, Hardware, Internet
  • Posted on January 28, 2017 11:46 am
    Joseph Forbes
    No comments

    Private Branch Exchange Explained A PBX (Private Branch Exchange) is a system that allows an organization to manage incoming and outgoing phone calls and also allows communication internally within the organization. A PBX is made up of both hardware and software and connects to communication devices like telephone adapters, hubs, switches, routers and of course, telephone sets. The most recent PBXs have a wealth of very interesting features that make communication easy and more powerful within for organizations, and contributes in making them more efficient and in boosting productivity. Their sizes and complexity vary, ranging from very expensive and complex corporate communication systems to basic plans that are hosted on the cloud for a two-digit monthly fee. You can also have simple PBX systems at home with basic features as an upgrade to your existing traditional phone line. What Does a PBX Do?  As mentioned above, the functions of a PBX can be very complex, but basically, when you talk about PBX, you talk about stuff that does these things: Use of more than one telephone line in an organization, and management of outgoing and incoming calls. Splitting of one single phone line into several internal lines, which are identified through three or four-digit numbers called extensions, and switching calls to the appropriate internal line. This saves the organization from having to pay for several lines, and allows all departments to be reached through one single phone number. Allow free phone communication within the organization. Empower the whole communication with VoIP (Voice over IP), which has a tremendous amount of features and enhancements over traditional telephony, the most prominent being the cutting down of call costs. Ensure good interface with customers through features like call recording, voicemail, IVR etc. Automation of response to calling customers with IVR (interactive voice response) whereby the system can automatically direct users to the most appropriate line through voice menus. It is the kind of feature where, as a caller, you hear things like "Press 1 for the Finance Depart, Press 2 for complaints..." The IP-PBX PBXes changed a lot with the advent of IP telephony or VoIP. After the analog PBXes that worked only on the telephone line and switches, we now have IP-PBXes, which use VoIP technology and IP networks like the Internet to channel calls. IP PBxes are normally preferred due to wealth of features that they come with. With the exception of old already-existing but still-working-fine PBXes, and those chosen because cheap, most PBX systems used nowadays tend to be IP PBXes. The Hosted PBX You do not always have to invest on the hardware, software, installation and maintenance of your in-house PBX, especially if you are running a small business and the cost of ownership prohibits you from benefiting from those important features. There are numerous companies online that offer you the PBX service against a monthly fee without you having anything but your telephone sets and router. These are called hosted PBX services and work on the cloud. The service is dispensed through the Internet. Hosted PBXes have the disadvantage of being generic such that they cannot be tailored to your needs, but they are quite cheap and do not require any upfront investment.

    Blog Entry, Hardware, KnowledgeBase (KB)
  • Posted on December 31, 2016 10:00 pm
    Joseph Forbes
    No comments

    I am familiar with Linux on my personal computer yet I have no experience in administrating systems. As a side job to university I applied to a job that requires some skills in administration and I wonder what skills I should work on for the interview.  -Intern Geek From a Red Hat Certified Systems Administrator experience... Understand and use essential tools for handling files, directories, command-line environments, and documentation Operate running systems, including booting into different run levels, identifying processes, starting and stopping virtual machines, and controlling services Configure local storage using partitions and logical volumes Create and configure file systems and file system attributes, such as permissions, encryption, access control lists, and network file systems Deploy, configure, and maintain systems, including software installation, update, and core services Manage users and groups, including use of a centralized directory for authentication Manage security, including basic firewall and SELinux configuration Basic Knowledge List for Linux Administrator : Basic commands (listing, cat, removing files/dir, nano, vi editor, more, tail etc ) LVM User Authentication (user add, remove, lock, unlock, home dir, ssh access) Group Administration (group add, remove, sudo group) Using SSH, Disabling root for ssh access & using sudo Installing programs using rpm & yum (configuring yum) Configuring a network (basics) Types of process & Managing process (basics) Kill signals Backup and restore Types of Run levels NFS, Samba, NIS (basics) Cron and At Jobs FTP & using Filezilla (easy) Booting process Kernel Parameters (basics) Top, Nice values Services Scripting (very basic) To clear a interview, I suggest to polish your skills depending on the company For Example If the company runs Web or DB Servers, then you should be familiar with installing LAMP Server and phpMyAdmin, mail servers and configuring them (which is absolutely very easy) & hardening of a server (basics) (Tutorials: Tutorials | DigitalOcean , Hardening : How to secure an Ubuntu 16.04 LTS server - Part 1 The Basics) If you land on some big company then your first work will be monitoring system performance with maintaining a running environment. Be able to add additional systems And at last learn some basics of Ubuntu commands (commands for installing packages in Ubuntu are different when compared to Red-hat but with the basics understood, you'll be able to admin most common environments.).  Throughout the 2017 year I will be posting follow up details to Linux training. Eventually I'll have some webinars for average user training in Linux.

    Blog Entry, EDUCATION, JOBS
  • Posted on December 10, 2016 1:54 pm
    Joseph Forbes
    No comments

    An IP address, short for Internet Protocol address, is an identifying number for a piece of network hardware. Having an IP address allows a device to communicate with other devices over an IP-based network. What is an IP Address Used For? An IP address provides an identity to a networked device. Similar to a home or business address supplying that specific physical location with an identifiable address, devices on a network are differentiated from one another through IP addresses. If I'm going to send a package to my friend in another country, I have to know the exact destination. It's not enough to just put a package with his name on it through the mail and expect it to reach him. I must instead attach a specific address to it, which you could do by looking it up in a phone book. This same general process is used when sending data over the Internet. However, instead of using a phone book to look up someone's name to find their physical address, your computer uses DNS servers to look up a hostname to find its IP address. For example, when I enter a website, like www.about.com, into my browser, my request to load that page is sent to DNS servers that look up that hostname (about.com) to find its corresponding IP address (207.241.148.80). Without the IP address attached, my computer will have no clue what it is that I'm after. Different Types of IP Addresses Even if you've heard of the IP addresses before, you may not realize that there are specific types of IP addresses. While all IP addresses are made up of numbers or letters, not all addresses are used for the same purpose. There are private IP addresses, public IP addresses, static IP addresses, and dynamic IP addresses. That's quite a variety! Following those links will give you much more information on what they each mean. To add to the complexity, each type of IP address can be an IPv4 address or an IPv6 address... more on these at the bottom of this page. In short, private IP addresses are used "inside" a network, like the one you probably run at home. These types of IP addresses are used to provide a way for your devices to communicate with your router and all the other devices in your private network. Private IP addresses can be set manually or assigned automatically by your router. Public IP addresses are used on the "outside" of your network and are assigned by your ISP. It's the main address that your home or business network uses to communicate with the rest of the networked devices around the world (i.e. the Internet). It provides a way for the devices in your home, for example, to reach your ISP, and therefore the outside world, allowing them to do things like access websites and communicate directly with other people's computers. Both private IP addresses and public IP addresses are either dynamic or static, which means that, respectively, they either change or they don't. An IP address that is assigned by a DHCP server is a dynamic IP address. If a device does not have DHCP enabled or does not support it then the IP address must be assigned manually, in which case the IP address is called a static IP address. How To Find Your IP Address Different devices and operating systems require unique steps to find the IP address. There are also different steps to take if you're looking for the public IP address provided to you by your ISP, or if you need to see the private IP address that your router handed out. Finding Your Public IP Address There are lots of ways to find your router's public IP address but sites like IP Chicken, WhatsMyIP.org, or WhatIsMyIPAddress.com make this super easy. These sites work on any network-connected device that supports a web browser, like your smartphone, iPod, laptop, desktop, tablet, etc. Finding the private IP address of the specific device you're on isn't as simple... Finding Your Private IP Address In Windows, you can find your device's IP address via the Command Prompt, using the ipconfig command. Tip: See How Do I Find My Default Gateway IP Address? if you need to find the IP address of your router, or whatever device that your network uses to access the public Internet. Linux users can launch a terminal window and enter the command hostname -I(that's a capital "i"), ifconfig, or ip addr show. For Mac OS X, use the command ifconfig to find your local IP address. iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch devices show their private IP address through the Settings app in the Wi-Fi menu. Tap the small "i" button next to the network it's connected to. Depending on whether the IP address was assigned via DHCP or was entered manually will determine which tab (DHCP or Static) you need to choose to see it. You can see the local IP address of an Android device through Settings > Wireless Controls > Wi-Fi settings. Just tap on the network you're on to see a new window that shows network information that includes the private IP address. IP Versions (IPv4 vs IPv6) There are two versions of IP: IPv4 and IPv6. If you've heard of these terms, you probably know that the former is the older, and now outdated, version while IPv6 is the upgraded IP version. One reason IPv6 is replacing IPv4 is that it can provide a much larger number of IP addresses than IPv4 allows. With all the devices we have constantly connected to the Internet, it's important that there's a unique address available for each one of them. The way IPv4 addresses are constructed means it's able to provide over 4 billion unique IP addresses (232). While this is a very large number of addresses, it's just not enough for the modern world with all the different devices people are using on the Internet. Think about it - there are several billion people on earth. Even if everyone in the planet had just one device they used to access the Internet, IPv4 would still be insufficient to provide an IP address for all of them. IPv6, on the other hand, supports a whopping 340 trillion, trillion, trillion addresses (2128). That's 340 with 12 zero's! This means every person on earth could connect billions of devices to the Internet. True, a bit overkill, but you can see how effectively IPv6 solves this problem. Visualizing this helps understand just how many more IP addresses the IPv6 addressing scheme allows over IPv4. Pretend a postage stamp could provide enough space to hold each and every IPv4 address. IPv6, then, to scale, would need the entire solar system to contain all of its addresses. In addition to the greater supply of IP addresses over IPv4, IPv6 has the added benefit of no more IP address collisions caused by private addresses, auto-configuration, no reason for Network Address Translation (NAT), more efficient routing, easier administration, built-in privacy, and more. IPv4 displays addresses as a 32-bit numerical number written in decimal format, like 207.241.148.80 or 192.168.1.1. Because there are trillions of possible IPv6 addresses, they must be written in hexadecimal to display them, like 3ffe:1900:4545:3:200:f8ff:fe21:67cf.

    Blog Entry, KnowledgeBase (KB), Technicals
  • Posted on December 10, 2016 11:50 am
    Joseph Forbes
    No comments

    192.168.1.101, 192.168.1.102 and 192.168.1.103 are all part of an IP address range typically used on home computer networks. They are most commonly found in homes using Linksys broadband routers, but the same addresses can also be used with other home routers and also with other kinds of private networks. How Home Routers Use the 192.168.1.x IP Address Range Home routers by default define a range of IP addresses to be assigned to client devices via DHCP.   Routers that use 192.168.1.1 as their network gateway address typically assign DHCP addresses starting with 192.168.1.100. It means that 192.168.1.101 will be the second such address in line to be assigned, 192.168.1.102 the third, 192.168.1.103 the fourth, and so on. While DHCP does not require addresses to be assigned in sequential order like this, it is the normal behavior. Consider the following example for a Wi-Fi home network: The home administrator uses a PC to initially set up the router and home network. The PC gets assigned IP address 192.168.1.100 by the router. A second PC is added to the network next. This PC receives 192.168.1.101. A game console then joins the network. It receives 192.168.1.102. A phone connects to the router via Wi-Fi, receiving 192.168.1.103. Assigned addresses can be swapped over time. In the above example, if both the game console and phone are disconnected from the network for an extended period of time, their addresses return to the DHCP pool and could be re-assigned in the opposite order depending on which device re-connects first. 192.168.1.101 is a private (also called "non-routable") IP address. It means computers on the Internet (or other remote networks) cannot communicate with that address directly without the assistance of intermediate routers. Messages from a home network router pertaining to 192.168.1.101 refer to one of the local computers and not an outside device. Configuring the 192.168.1.x IP Address Range Any home network or other private network can use this same 192.168.1.x IP address range even if the router uses different settings by default. To set up a router for this specific range: log into the router as administrator navigate to the router's IP and DHCP settings; the location varies depending on type of router but is often located on a Setup menu. set the router's local IP address to be 192.168.1.1 or other 192.168.1.x value; 'x' should be a sufficiently low number to allow address space for clients. set the DHCP starting IP address to be 192.168.1.x+1 - for example, if the router's IP address is chosen to be 192.168.1.101, then the starting IP address for clients can be 192.168.1.102.

    Blog Entry, KnowledgeBase (KB), Technicals
  • Posted on December 10, 2016 11:48 am
    Joseph Forbes
    No comments

    192.168.1.100 is the beginning of the default dynamic IP address range for some Linksys home broadband routers. It is a private IP address that can be also assigned to any device on a local network configured to use this address range. Working with 192.168.1.100 on Linksys Routers Many Linksys routers set 192.168.1.1 as their default local address, then define a range (pool) of IP addresses made available to client devices dynamically via DHCP. Home network administrators can view and update these settings through the router console. Some Linksys router consoles support a configuration setting called "Starting IP Address" that defines which IP address is the first one in the pool that DHCP will allocate from. The first computer (or another device) a person connects to one of these routers will typically be assigned this address. While 192.168.1.100 is often the default for this setting, administrators are free to change it to a different address, like 192.168.1.2 for example. Even if 192.168.1.100 is not chosen as the start address, it can still belong to the DHCP address pool. Linksys routers allow administrators to specify the size of pool and another setting called a subnet mask that together determine the range of addresses allowed on the local network. Working with 192.168.1.100 on Private Networks Any private network, whether a home or business network, can use 192.168.1.100 no matter the type of router involved. It can be part of a DHCP pool or set as a static IP address, The device assigned 192.168.1.100 can change when a network uses DHCP but does not change when using static addressing. Run a ping test from any other computer on the network to determine whether 192.168.1.100 is assigned to a device currently connected. A router's console also displays the list of DHCP addresses it has assigned (some of which may belong to devices currently offline). 192.168.1.100 is a private IPv4 network address meaning that ping tests or any other connection from the Internet or other outside networks cannot be made directly. Traffic for these devices passes through the router and must be initiated by the local device.  A network client does not gain improved performance or better security from having 192.168.1.100 as their address compared to any other private address. Issues with 192.168.1.100 Administrators should avoid manually assigning this address to any device when it belongs to a router's DHCP address range. Otherwise, IP address conflicts can result as the router can assign this address to a different device than the one already using it.

    Blog Entry, KnowledgeBase (KB), Technicals
  • Posted on December 10, 2016 11:47 am
    Joseph Forbes
    No comments

    Definition: The IP address 192.168.1.254 is the default for certain home broadband routers and broadband modems, including: Some 3Com OfficeConnect routers Netopia / Cayman Internet gateways Billion ADSL routers Linksys SRW2024 managed switches Westell modems for Bellsouth / AT&T DSL Internet service in the U.S. This address is set by the manufacturer at the factory, but you can change it at any time using the vendor's console management software. Entering 'http://192.168.1.254' (and not 'www.192.168.1.254') into a Web browser's address bar enables access to the router's console. 192.168.1.254 is a private IPv4 network address. Any device on a local network can be set to use it. As with any such address, however, only one device on the network should use 192.168.1.254 at a time to avoid IP address conflicts.

    Blog Entry, KnowledgeBase (KB), Technicals
  • Posted on December 10, 2016 11:45 am
    Joseph Forbes
    No comments

    The IP address 192.168.0.1 is the default for certain home broadband routers, principally various D-Link and Netgear models. This address is set by the manufacturer at the factory, but you can change it at any time using the network router's administrative console. 192.168.0.1 is a private IPv4 network address. Home routers can use it to establish the default gateway. On such routers, you can access its administrative console by pointing a Web browser to: http://192.168.0.1 Any brand of router, or any computer on a local network for that matter, can be set to use this address or a comparable private IPv4 address. As with any IP address, only one device on the network should use 192.168.0.1 to avoid address conflicts.

    KnowledgeBase (KB), Technicals