• Posted on June 10, 2017 11:11 am
    Joseph Forbes
    No comments

    Check Point Threat Intelligence and research teams recently discovered a high volume Chinese threat operation which has infected over 250 million computers worldwide. The installed malware,  Fireball, takes over target browsers and turns them into zombies. Fireball has two main functionalities:  the ability of running any code on victim computers–downloading any file or malware, and  hijacking and manipulating infected users’ web-traffic to generate ad-revenue. Currently, Fireball installs plug-ins and additional configurations to boost its advertisements, but just as easily it can turn into a prominent distributor for any additional malware. This operation is run by Rafotech, a large digital marketing agency based in Beijing. Rafotech uses Fireball to manipulate the victims’ browsers and turn their default search engines and home-pages into fake search engines. This redirects the queries to either yahoo.com or Google.com. The fake search engines include tracking pixels used to collect the users’ private information. Fireball has the ability to  spy on victims, perform efficient malware dropping, and execute any malicious code in the infected machines, this creates a massive security flaw in targeted machines and networks.   KEY FINDINGS Check Point analysts uncovered a high volume Chinese threat operation which has infected over 250 million computers worldwide, and 20% of corporate networks. The malware, called Fireball, acts as a browser-hijacker but and can be turned into a full-functioning malware downloader. Fireball is capable of executing any code on the victim machines, resulting in a wide range of actions from stealing credentials to dropping additional malware. Fireball is spread mostly via bundling i.e. installed on victim machines alongside a wanted program, often without the user’s consent. The operation is run by Chinese digital marketing agency. Top infected countries are India (10.1%) and Brazil (9.6%)   Figure 1: Fireball Infection Flow     250 MILLIONS MACHINES AND 20% OF CORPORATE NETWORKS WORLDWIDE INFECTED The scope of the malware distribution is alarming. According to our analysis, over 250 million computers worldwide have been  infected: specifically,  25.3 million infections in India (10.1%), 24.1 million in Brazil (9.6%), 16.1 million in Mexico (6.4%), and 13.1 million in Indonesia (5.2%). The United States has  witnessed 5.5 million infections (2.2%). Based on Check Point’s global sensors,  20% of all corporate networks are affected . Hit rates in the US (10.7%) and China (4.7%) are alarming;but Indonesia (60%), India (43%) and Brazil (38%) have much more dangerous hit rates. Another indicator of the incredibly high infection rate is the popularity of Rafotech’s fake search engines. According to Alexa’s web traffic data, 14 of these fake search engines are among the top 10,000 websites, with some of them occasionally reaching the top 1,000. Figure 2: Fireball Global Infection Rates (darker pink = more infections)   Ironically, although Rafotech doesn’t admit it produces browser-hijackers and fake search engines, it does (proudly) declare itself a successful marketing agency, reaching 300 million users worldwide – coincidentally similar to our number of estimated infections. Figure 3: Rafotech’s Advertisement on the Company’s Official Website   A BACKDOOR TO EVERY INFECTED NETWORK Fireball and similar browser-hijackers are hybrid creatures, half seemingly legitimate software (see the GOING UNDER THE RADAR section), and half malware. Although Rafotech  uses Fireball only for advertising and initiating traffic to its fake search engines, it  can perform any action on the victims’ machines These actions  can have serious consequences. How severe is it? Try to imagine a pesticide armed with a nuclear bomb. Yes, it can do the job, but it can also do much more. These browser-hijackers are  capable on the browser level. This means that they can drive victims to malicious sites, spy on them and conduct successful malware dropping. From a technical perspective, Fireball displays great sophistication and quality evasion techniques, including anti-detection capabilities, multi-layer structure and a flexible C&C– it is not inferior to a typical malware. Many threat actors would like to have  a fraction of Rafotech’s power, as Fireball provides a critical backdoor, which can be further exploited.   GOING UNDER THE RADAR While the distribution of Fireball is both malicious and illegitimate, it actually carries digital certificates imparting them a legitimate appearance. Confused? You should be. Rafotech carefully walks along the edge of legitimacy, knowing that adware distribution is not considered a crime like malware distribution is. How is that? Many companies provide software or services for free, and make their profits by harvesting data or presenting advertisements. Once a client agrees to the installment of extra features or software to his/her computer, it is hard to claim malicious intent on behalf of the provider. This gray zone led to the birth of a new kind of monetizing method – bundling. Bundling is when a wanted program installs another program alongside it, sometimes with a user’s authorization and sometimes without. Rafotech uses bundling in high volume to spread Fireball.   Figure 4: Bundling in Action   According to our analysis, Rafotech’s distribution methods appear to be illegitimate and don’t follow the criteria which would allow these actions to be considered naïve or legal. The malware and the fake search engines don’t carry indicators connecting them to Rafotech, they cannot be uninstalled by an ordinary user, and they conceal their true nature. So how do they carry digital certificates? One possibility is that issuers make their living from providing certificates, and small issuers with flexible ethics can enjoy the lack of clarity in the adware world’s legality to approve software such as Rafotech’s browser-hijackers. THE INFECTION MODEL As with other types of malware, there are many ways for Fireball to spread. We suspect that two popular vectors are bundling the malware to other Rafotech products – Deal Wifi and Mustang Browser – as well as bundling via other freeware distributors: products such as “Soso Desktop”, “FVP Imageviewer” and others. It’s important to remember that when a user installs freeware, additional malware isn’t necessarily dropped at the same time. If you download a suspicious freeware and nothing happens on the spot, it doesn’t necessarily mean that something isn’t happening behind the scenes. Furthermore, it is likely that Rafotech is using additional distribution methods, such as spreading freeware under fake names, spam, or even buying installs from threat actors. As with everything in the internet, remember that there are no free lunches. When you download freeware, or use cost-free services (streaming and downloads, for example), the service provider is making profit somehow. If it’s not from you or from advertisements, it will come from somewhere else.   Figure 5: Deal Wifi Installation Screen   HOW CAN I KNOW IF I AM INFECTED? To check if you’re infected, first open your web browser. Was your home-page set by you? Are you able to modify it? Are you familiar with your default search engine and can modify that as well? Do you remember installing all of your browser extensions? If the answer to any of these questions is “NO”, this is a sign that you’re infected with adware. You can also use a recommended adware scanner, just to be extra cautious. Figure 6: trotux.com; a Fake Search Engine Run by Rafotech     THE RED BUTTON IN THE WRONG HANDS It doesn’t take much to imagine a scenario in which Rafotech decides to harvest sensitive information from all of its infected machines, and sell this data to threat groups or business rivals. Banking and credit card credentials, medical files, patents and business plans can all be widely exposed and abused by threat actors for various purposes. Based on our estimated infection rate, in such a scenario, one out of five corporations worldwide will be susceptible to a major breach. Severe damage can be caused to key organizations, from major service providers to critical infrastructure operators to medical institutions. The potential loss is indescribable, and repairing the damage caused by such massive data leakage (if even possible) could take years. Rafotech holds the power to initiate a global catastrophe and it is not alone. During our research we’ve tracked down additional browser-hijackers that, to our understanding, were developed by other companies. One such company is ELEX Technology, an Internet Services company also based in Beijing  produces products similar to those of Rafotech. Several findings lead us to suspect that the two companies are related, and may be collaborating in the distribution of browser-hijackers or in trading customers’ traffic. For example, an adware developed by ELEX, named YAC (“Yet Another Cleaner”) is suspected to be connected to Rafotech’s operation, dropping its browser-hijackers.   CONCLUSION In this research we’ve described Rafotech’s browser-hijackers operation – possibly the largest infection operation in history. We believe that although this is not a typical malware attack campaign, it has the potential to cause irreversible damage to its victims as well as worldwide internet users, and therefore it must be blocked by security companies. The full distribution of Fireball is not yet known, but it is clear that it presents a great threat to the global cyber ecosystem. With a quarter billion infected machines and a grip in one of every five corporate networks, Rafotech’s activities make it an immense threat.   HOW DO I REMOVE THE MALWARE, ONCE INFECTED? To remove almost any adware, follow these simple steps: Uninstall the adware by removing the application from the Programs and Features list in the Windows Control Panel.   For Mac OS users: Use the Finder to locate the Applications Drag the suspicious file to the Trash. Empty the Trash.   Note – A usable program is not always installed on the machine and therefore may not be found on the program list.   Scan and clean your machine, using: Anti-Malware software Adware cleaner software   Remove malicious Add-ons, extensions or plug-ins from your browser: On Google Chrome:a.       Click the Chrome menu icon and select Tools > Extensions. b.      Locate and select any suspicious Add-ons. c.       Click the trash can icon to delete.   On Internet Explorer:a.       Click the Setting icon and select Manage Add-ons. b.      Locate and remove any malicious Add-ons. On Mozilla Firefox:a.       Click the Firefox menu icon and go to the Tools tab. b.      Select Add-ons > Extensions. A new window opens. c.       Remove any suspicious Add-ons. d.      Go to the Add-ons manager > Plugins. e.      Locate and disable any malicious plugins.   On Safari:a.       Make sure the browser is active. b.      Click the Safari tab and select preferences. A new window opens. c.       Select the Extensions tab. d.      Locate and uninstall any suspicious extensions.     Restore your internet browser to its default settings: On Google Chrome:a.       Click the Chrome menu icon, and select Settings. b.      In the On startup section, click Set Pages. c.       Delete the malicious pages from the Startup pages list. d.      Find the Show Home button option and select Change. e.      In the Open this page field, delete the malicious search engine page. f.        In the Search section, select Manage search engines. g.       Select the malicious search engine page and remove from the list. On Internet Explorer:a.       Select the Tools tab and then select Internet Options. A new window opens. b.      In the Advanced tab, select Reset. c.       Check the Delete personal settings box. d.      Click the Reset button. On Mozilla Firefox:a.       Enable the browser Menu Bar by clicking the blank space near the page tabs. b.      Click the Help tab, and go to Troubleshooting information. A new window opens. c.       Select Reset Firefox. On Safari:a.       Select the Safari tab and then select Preferences. A new window opens. b.      In the Privacy tab, the Manage Website Data… button. A new window opens. c.       Click the Remove All button.           INDICATORS OF COMPROMISE C&C addresses attirerpage[.]com s2s[.]rafotech[.]com trotux[.]com startpageing123[.]com funcionapage[.]com universalsearches[.]com thewebanswers[.]com nicesearches[.]com youndoo[.]com giqepofa[.]com mustang-browser[.]com forestbrowser[.]com luckysearch123[.]com ooxxsearch[.]com search2000s[.]com walasearch[.]com hohosearch[.]com yessearches[.]com d3l4qa0kmel7is[.]cloudfront[.]net d5ou3dytze6uf[.]cloudfront[.]net d1vh0xkmncek4z[.]cloudfront[.]net d26r15y2ken1t9[.]cloudfront[.]net d11eq81k50lwgi[.]cloudfront[.]net ddyv8sl7ewq1w[.]cloudfront[.]net d3i1asoswufp5k[.]cloudfront[.]net dc44qjwal3p07[.]cloudfront[.]net dv2m1uumnsgtu[.]cloudfront[.]net d1mxvenloqrqmu[.]cloudfront[.]net dfrs12kz9qye2[.]cloudfront[.]net dgkytklfjrqkb[.]cloudfront[.]net dgkytklfjrqkb[.]cloudfront[.]net/main/trmz[.]exe   File Hashes FAB40A7BDE5250A6BC8644F4D6B9C28F 69FFDF99149D19BE7DC1C52F33AAA651 B56D1D35D46630335E03AF9ADD84B488 8C61A6937963507DC87D8BF00385C0BC 7ADB7F56E81456F3B421C01AB19B1900 84DCB96BDD84389D4449F13EAC75098 2B307E28CE531157611825EB0854C15F 7B2868FAA915A7FC6E2D7CC5A965B1E

    Hacking, Internet, Internet Scam Notices
  • Posted on May 31, 2017 10:54 am
    Joseph Forbes
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    Ransomware cyber attacks are quickly becoming the preferred method of attack by cybercriminals. WannaCry, the latest global incident, is particularly damaging because it is also a worm—not just a ransomware program. As a result, it looks for other computers to spread to. When it infects a new computer, it encrypts the data and locks out the owner until a minimum of $300 in bitcoin is paid. To achieve its unprecedented rate of circulation across networks, WannaCry ransomware utilizes a Windows OS vulnerability that was recently exposed as part of the leaked NSA hacker tools. Microsoft has released a public bulletin along with patches for Windows XP, Windows 8, and certain server platforms that did not receive the original MS17-010 update. You may view their announcement in full here. Whether you call it WannaCry, WannaCrypt, WCrypt, Wanacrypt0r, WCry, or one of the other names currently vying for the “call me this” crown, the ubiquitous ransomware which brought portions of the UK’s NHS to its knees over the weekend along with everything from train stations to ATM machines is still with us, and causing mayhem Worldwide. As a result, our regular roundup has been replaced with what will hopefully serve as a useful place to collect links related to the attack. First thing’s first: this was a big enough incident that Microsoft created a special patch for Windows XP users, some three years after it had the plug pulled on support. Regardless of Windows OS, go get your update. Now that we have that out of the way, here’s some handy links for you to get a good overview of what’s been going on: A rundown by our good selves, detailing the spread and tactics used by this worm to deposit Ransomware globally. A deep dive into the Malware by one of our Malware research specialists. Watching the infection bounce around doctor’s surgeries. How the purchase of a URL dealt a massive blow to the previously unstoppable spread. What happens when the URL purchasing White Hat is doxxed by the press. People are paying to retrieve files, but it seems they’re taking quite a gamble. The Malware authors are processing decryption manually. If you pay, but they can’t be bothered / their PC explodes / they’re hauled off to jail, you’re definitely not getting files back anytime soon. More problems: fake decryption tools. Misery begets misery. It may be down, but it most certainly isn’t out with fresh infections still taking place. Accusations of an amateur hour operation, despite the problems caused so far. Another “kill-switch” domain has been registered, hoping to slow the follow-up tides of Ransomware related doom. The hunt is now on for the people behind it all. They’ve managed to annoy at least 3 major spy agencies, so good luck I guess. And finally… This is a rapidly changing story, with a lot of valuable follow-up data being posted to haunts favored by security researchers such as Twitter, and we’ll likely add more links as the days pass. Update your security tools, patch your version of Windows and stay safe!

    Blog Entry, Data Recovery, Hacking
  • Posted on April 25, 2017 12:25 pm
    Joseph Forbes
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    What DLNA Is DLNA stands for Digital Living Network Alliance. The DLNA is a trade organization that was founded to set standards and guidelines via a certification program for home networking media devices, including many PCs, Smartphones/Tablets, Smart TVs, Blu-ray Disc Players, and Network Media players. DLNA certification lets the consumer know that once connected to your home network, it will automatically communicate with other connected DLNA certified products. DLNA certified devices can: find and play movies; send, display and/or upload photos, find, send, play and/or download music; and send and print photos between compatible network-connected devices. Some examples of DLNA compatibility include the following: If your smartphone and TV are DLNA certified, you should be able to send audio and video from your smartphone to your TV via your home network. If your TV or Blu-ray Disc player and PC are DLNA certified, you should be able to access audio, video, and still-image files stored on your network connected PC and see or listen on through your TV or Blu-ray Disc player. If you have a DLNA certified digital camera, you can send images, using your home network, to your TV, DLNA certified PC or another compatible device. The History of DLNA In the early years of networking home entertainment, it was difficult and confusing to add a new device and get it to communicate with your computers and other network devices. You might have had to know IP addresses and add each device separately along with crossing your fingers for good luck. DLNA has changed all that. The Digital Living Network Alliance (DLNA) was started in 2003 when several manufacturers got together to create a standard, and implement certification requirements so that all products made by participating manufacturers were compatible in a home network. This meant that certified products were compatible even if they were made by different manufacturers. Different Certifications for Each Device's Role in Sharing Media Products that are DLNA certified typically are recognized, with little or no setup, as soon as you connect them to your network. DLNA certification means that the device plays a role in your home network and that other DLNA products can communicate with it based on their own roles. Some products store the media. Some products control the media and some products play the media. There is a certification for each of these roles. Within each certification, there are DLNA guidelines for Ethernet and WiFi connectivity, for hardware requirements, for software or firmware requirements, for the user interface, for instructions to make the device networkable, and for displaying different formats of media files. "It's like a car's all point inspection," said Alan Messer, DLNA board member and Senior Director of Convergence Technologies and Standards for Samsung Electronics. "Each aspect must pass testing to get a DLNA certification." Through testing and certification, consumers are assured that they can connect DLNA certified products and be able to save, share, stream and show digital media. Images, music, and video stored on one DLNA certified device -- a computer, network attached storage (NAS) drive or media server--will play on other DLNA certified devices -- TVs, AV receivers, and other computers on the network. The DLNA certification is based on product types and categories. It makes more sense if you break it down. Your media lives (is stored) on a hard drive somewhere. The media must be accessible served up to be shown on other devices. The device where the media lives are the Digital Media Server. Another device plays the video, music, and photos so you can watch them. This is the Digital Media Player. Certification can either be built into the hardware or be part of a software application/program that is running on the device. This particularly relates to network attached storage (NAS) drives and computers.  Twonky, TVersity, and TV Mobili are popular software products that act as digital media servers and can be found by other DLNA devices. DLNA Product Categories Made Simple When you connect a DLNA certified network media component to your home network, it simply appears in other networked components' menus. Your computers and other media devices discover and recognize the device without any setup. DLNA certifies home network products by the role they play in your home network. Some products play media. Some products store the media and make it accessible to media players. And still others control and direct media from its source to a particular player in the network. By understanding the different certifications, you can understand how the home network puzzle fits together. When using media sharing software and devices, you see a list of these categories of devices. Knowing what they are and what they do will help to make sense of your home network. While a digital media player obviously plays media, the names of other devices are not as evident. Basic Media Sharing DLNA Certification Categories Digital Media Player (DMP) - The certification category applies to devices that can find and play media from other devices and computers. A certified media player lists the components (sources) where your media is saved. You choose the photos, music or videos that you want to play from a list of media on the player's menu. The media then streams to the player. A media player may be connected to or built into a TV, Blu-ray Disc player and/or home theater AV receiver, so you can watch or listen to the media it is playing. Digital Media Server (DMS) - The certification category applies to devices that store a media library. It may be a computer, a network attached storage (NAS) drive, a smartphone, a DLNA certified networkable digital camera or camcorder, or a network media server device. A media server must have a hard drive or a memory card on which the media is saved. The media saved to the device can be called up by a digital media player. The media server makes the files available to stream media to the player so you can watch or listen to it. Digital Media Renderer (DMR) - The certification category is similar to the digital media player category. The device is this category also play digital media. However, the difference is that DMR-certified devices can be seen by a digital media controller (further explanation below), and media can be streamed to it from a digital media server. While a digital media player can only play what it can see on its menu, a digital media renderer can be controlled externally. Some certified Digital Media Players are also certified as Digital Media Renderers. Both stand-alone network media players and networked TVs and home theater AV receivers can be certified as Digital Media Renderers. Digital Media Controller (DMC)- This certification category applies to go-between devices that can find media on a Digital Media Server and send it to the Digital Media Renderer. Often smartphones, tablets, computer software like Twonky Beam, or even cameras or camcorders are certified as Digital Media Controllers. More On DLNA Certifications Often you will see the DLNA logo on a product or product description. But rarely will you see what certification it has been given. To know a product's capabilities, you need to know its certification. The DLNA website lists many products under each certification. This can help you to find what you need -- a Digital Media Server, a Digital Media Player, a Digital Media Controller, or a Digital Media Renderer. Other DLNA certification categories that include those for digital media printers and specific certifications for mobile devices.The mobile certifications include Mobile Digital Media Server, Mobile Digital Media Player, and Mobile Digital Media Controller.There are also DLNA certifications for Mobile Digital Media Uploader and Mobile Digital Media Downloader. These certifications relate to the mobile device's ability to upload media through the network to a computer or other media server. An uploader can send files to be saved on a media server. A camera may have this ability so you don't have to connect directly to the computer or another device. Similarly, a mobile digital media downloader can find media on your computers or media servers and save the file to itself. For example, you can find music in your music library and load it to your phone via the home network. Windows 7, Windows 8, and Windows 10 are compatible with DLNA as a Digital Media Server, Digital Media Renderer and Digital Media Controller. However, you will need to set up the media sharing and network home group. More and more Digital Media Players are also Digital Media Renderers. This means that you can send files to play on it or you can choose files from sources directly from the player's menu. If you are looking at the list of digital media renderers on your controller -- smartphone or computer app, or camera-- and you don't see a media player that is connected to your home network, then it is not a Digital Media Renderer. You can not send media to that device. Once you have used a Digital Media Controller to start playback from the Digital Media Server (the media library's source) to the Digital Media Renderer (that's playing the streamed media), you no longer need the controller. In other words, if you used a cell phone to start the playback, you could leave with the phone and the playback would continue. More Info Understanding the DLNA certifications helps you to understand what is possible in home networking. DLNA makes it possible to walk in with your cell phone loaded with photos and videos from your day at the beach, press a button and start it playing on your TV without making any connections. A great example of DLNA in action is Samsung's "AllShare"(TM). AllShare is built into Samsung's line of DLNA certified networked entertainment products -- from cameras to laptops, to TVs, home theaters and Blu-ray Disc players--creating a truly connected home entertainment experience. For a complete rundown on Samsung AllShare - refer to our supplementary reference article: Samsung AllShare Simplifies Media Streaming Digital Living Network Alliance Update As of January 5, 2017, the DLNA has disbanded as a non-profit trade organization and has relinquished all certification and other related support services to Spirespark, going forward from February 1, 2017. For more details, refer to the Official Announcement and FAQs posted by the Digital Living Network Alliance.

    Blog Entry, Cloud Apps, TECHNOLOGY
  • Posted on April 17, 2017 11:46 am
    Joseph Forbes
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    A hacker is a tech-savvy user who manipulates and bypasses computer systems to make them do the unintended. Sometimes this manipulation is noble, with the goal to create something beneficial. Other times, hacking is harsh and done with the wicked goal to hurt people through identity theft or other harm. You are likely familiar with the stereotypical 1980's hacker: the evil criminal who is socially isolated. While this stereotype does indeed describe some modern 'black hat' hackers, there exists a subset of hackers who are not criminals. In fact, there are many hackers who use their knowledge for good. This is broken down into three categories Today, 'hacker' is a descriptor that subdivides into 3 categories: 'Black Hat' Hackers: criminals and wrongdoers. 'White Hat' Hackers: ethical hackers who work to protect systems and people. 'Grey Hat' Hackers: dabble in both black hat and white hat tinkering. Classic 'Black Hat' Hackers = Criminals/Lawbreakers 'Black hat hacker' = criminal with evil intent. Gu / Getty This is the classic definition of a hacker: a computer user who willfully vandalizes or commits theft on other people's networks. 'Black hat' is a stylish way to describe their malicious motivations. Black hats are gifted but unethical computer users who are motivated by feelings of power, money and petty revenge. They are electronic thugs in every sense of the word, and they share the same personality traits as emotionally stunted teens who smash bus stop windows for personal satisfaction. Black hat hackers are renowned for the following common cybercrimes: DDoS Distributed, Denial of Service (flood) attacks that impair computer networks. Identity theft, Phishing, scams, social engineering schemes. Vandalism of systems, defacing, disabling, removing access. The creation of destructive programs, like worms, and CryptoLocker! 'White Hat' Ethical Hackers = Network Security Specialists 'White hat' hacker = security professional. Yan / Getty Different from the classic black hat hackers, white hat hackers are either driven by honorable motivations, or they are mercenaries working on honorable agendas. Also known as 'ethical hackers', white hats are talented computer security users often employed to help protect computer networks. Some white hats are reformed black hats, like former convicts who take on work as store security guards. While they themselves may have been unethical in the past, their current vocation is considered a white hat. With experience in what the 'bad guy' can do, these reformed hats, are among the most skilled at protecting their clients. Ethical hackers are motivated by a steady paycheck. It is not surprising to see ethical hackers spending those paychecks on very expensive personal computers in their personal lives, so they can play online games after work. As long as they have a good-paying job to support their personal habits, an ethical hacker is usually not motivated to destroy nor steal from their employer. Special note: some white hat hackers are 'academic hackers'. These are computer artisans who are less interested in protecting systems, and more interested in creating clever programs and beautiful interfaces. Their motivation is to improve a system through alterations and additions. Academic hackers can be casual hobbyists, or they can be serious computer engineers working on their graduate-level degrees. These are the people who create new viruses, as proof of concepts.  No intentions on making the world worse, but to help bright to light problems that need solving. 'Grey Hat Hackers' = Conflicted, Uncertain Which Side of the Law They Stand Grey hat hackers: a mix of good and evil. Peoplemages / Getty Grey hat hackers are often hobbyists with intermediate technical skills. These hobbyists enjoy disassembling and modifying their own computers for hobby pleasure, and they will sometimes dabble in minor white collar crimes like file sharing and cracking software. Indeed, if you are a P2P downloader, you are a type of gray hat hacker.  These are undisciplined members of the profession. Often users with access to tools, and 'kits' that enable their ability to accomplish their goals.  In most cases Grey hats are people who never gained the formal understanding of what they are doing. Gray hat hackers rarely escalate into becoming serious black hat hackers. Often times, Grey hats end up getting caught, or warned into stopping their activities. Subcategories of Hackers: Script Kiddies and Hacktivists Script Kiddies: this is a stylish name for novice hackers who are unskilled. Script kiddies can be white hat, black hat, or grey hat. These are people who feel empowered enough to cause others and themselves damages. Hacktivists: this is the hacker who is also a social activist fighting for a cause. Some people would argue that famous hackers like Lulzsec and Anonymous are hacktivists fighting government corruption and corporate misdeeds. Hacktivists can be white hat, black hat, or grey hat. Only a specified team they support at the time being. More About Computer Hackers Computer hacking is often exaggerated by the media, and very few public narratives give hackers the fair shake that they deserve. While most movies and TV shows of hackers are absurd, you might consider watching Mr. Robot if you want to see what hacktivists do. Every savvy web user should know about the unsavory people on the Web. Understanding common hacker attacks and scams will help you navigate online intelligently and confidently.

    Blog Entry, EDUCATION, Hacking
  • Posted on March 26, 2017 12:00 pm
    Joseph Forbes
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    This list describes common causes of slow Internet connections in homes. A poorly performing connection can be caused by broadband router configuration errors, wireless interference, or any of several other technical issues with your home network. Use these tips to not only diagnose but also fix the causes of slow Internet connections. Many of them apply to wireless hotspot connections, too. 1 Check Your Broadband Router Settings stefanamer/iStock As the centerpiece of a network, a broadband router can be responsible for slow Internet connections if configured improperly. For example, the MTU setting of your router will lead to performance issues if set too high or too low. Ensure your router's settings are all consistent with the manufacturer's and your Internet Service Provider (ISP) recommendations. Carefully record any changes you make to your router's configuration so that you can undo them later if necessary. 2 Avoid Wireless Signal Interference United States Radio Spectrum - Frequency Allocations. www.ntia.doc.gov Wi-Fi and other types of wireless connections may perform poorly due to signal interference, which requires computers to continually resend messages to overcome signal issues. Household appliances and even your neighbors' wireless networks can interfere with your computers. To avoid slow Internet connections due to signal interference, reposition your router for better performance and change your Wi-Fi channel number. 3 Beware of Worms... Internet Worms An Internet worm is a malicious software program that spreads from device to device through computer networks. If any of your computers are infected by an Internet worm, they may begin spontaneously generating network traffic without your knowledge, causing your Internet connection to appear slow. Keep up-to-date antivirus software running to catch and remove these worms from your devices. 4 Stop Network Applications Running in the Background Some software applications you install on a computer run as so-called background processes - hidden behind other apps or minimized to the system tray - quietly consuming network resources. Unlike worms, these applications are designed to do useful work and not the kind a person wishes to remove from their device normally. Games and programs that work with videos in particular can heavily utilize your network and cause connections to appear slow. It's easy to forget these applications are running. Always check computers for any programs running in the background when troubleshooting a slow network. 5 Isolate and Repair Faulty Network Equipment When routers, modems or cables malfunction, they won't properly support network traffic at full speeds. Certain technical glitches in network equipment negatively affect performance even though connections themselves can sometimes still be made. To troubleshoot potentially faulty equipment, temporarily re-arrange and re-configure your gear while experimenting with different configurations. Systematically try bypassing the router, swapping cables, and tests with multiple devices to isolate the slow performance to a specific component of the system. Then decide if it can somehow be upgraded or repaired... or if it needs to be replaced. 6 Work with Your Internet Service Provider (ISP) if Necessary Command Prompt - Ping - Unresponsive IP Address. Bradley Mitchell / About.com Internet speed ultimately depends on the service provider. Your ISP may change their network's configuration or suffer technical difficulties that inadvertently cause your Internet connection to run slowly. ISPs may also intentionally install filters or controls on the network that can lower your performance. Don't hesitate to contact your service provider if you suspect they are responsible for a slow Internet connection.

    Blog Entry, DATA, Internet