• Posted on October 25, 2017 4:57 pm
    Joseph Forbes
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    As outlined in the Adobe Support Lifecycle Policy, Adobe provides five years of product support from the general availability date of Adobe Acrobat and Adobe Reader. In line with that policy, support for Adobe Acrobat 11.x and Adobe Reader 11.x will end on October 15, 2017. What does End of Support mean? End of support means that Adobe no longer provides technical support, including product and/or security updates, for all derivatives of a product or product version (e.g., localized versions, minor upgrades, operating systems, dot and double-dot releases, and connector products). What should I do now? You may continue to use Acrobat XI and Reader XI, but Adobe will no longer provide any updates or address any existing bugs or security issues in the software. Because of this, it is strongly recommended that you update to the latest versions of Adobe Acrobat DC and Adobe Acrobat Reader DC. This will ensure that you benefit from all  new functional enhancements and security updates, not to mention support for newer operating systems. Technical support for Acrobat XI will also be discontinued.

    DATA, NERD NEWS, Software
  • Posted on October 2, 2017 10:45 am
    Joseph Forbes
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    The latency of a network connection represents the amount of time required for data to travel between the sender and receiver. While all computer networks possess some inherent amount of latency, the amount varies and can suddenly increase for various reasons. People perceive these unexpected time delays as lag. The Speed of Light On a Computer Network No network traffic can travel faster than the speed of light. On a home or local area network, the distance between devices is so small that light speed does not matter, but for Internet connections, it becomes a factor. Under perfect conditions, light requires roughly 5 ms to travel 1,000 miles (about 1,600 kilometers). Furthermore, most long-distance Internet traffic travels over cables, which cannot carry signals as fast as light due to a principle of physics called refraction. Data over a fiber optic cable, for example, requires at least 7.5 ms to travel 1,000 miles. Typical Internet Connection Latencies Besides the limits of physics, additional network latency is caused when traffic is routed through Internet servers and other backbone devices. The typical latency of an Internet connection also varies depending on its type. The study Measuring Broadband America - February 2013 reported these typical Internet connection latencies for common forms of U.S. broadband service: fiber optic: 18 ms cable Internet: 26 ms DSL: 44 ms satellite Internet: 638 ms Causes of Lag on Internet Connections The latencies of Internet connections fluctuate small amounts from one minute to the next, but the additional lag from even small increases becomes noticeable when surfing the Web or running online applications. The following are common sources of Internet lag: Internet traffic load: Spikes in Internet utilization during peak usage times of day often cause lag. The nature of this lag varies by service provider and a person's geographic location. Unfortunately, other than moving locations or changing Internet service, an individual user cannot avoid this kind of lag. Online application load: Multiplayer online games, Web sites, and other client-server network applications utilize shared Internet servers. If these servers become overloaded with activity, the clients experience lag. Weather and other wireless interference: Satellite, fixed wireless broadband, and other wireless Internet connections are particularly susceptible to signal interference from rain. Wireless interference causes network data to be corrupted in transit, causing lag from re-transmission delays. Lag switches: Some people who play online games install a device called a lag switch on their local network. A lag switch is specially designed to intercept network signals and introduce significant delays into the flow of data back to other gamers connected to a live session. You can do little to solve this kind of lag problem other than avoiding playing with those who use lag switches; fortunately, they are relatively uncommon. Causes of Lag on Home Networks Sources of network lag also exist inside a home network as follows: Overloaded router or modem: Any network router will eventually bog down if too many active clients are using it at the same time. Network contention among multiple clients means that they are sometimes waiting for each other's requests to be processed, causing lag. A person can replace their router with a more powerful model, or add another router to the network, to help alleviate this problem. Similarly, network contention occurs on a residence's modem and connection to the Internet provider if saturated with traffic: Depending on the speed of your Internet link, try to avoid too many simultaneous Internet downloads and online sessions to minimize this lag. Overloaded client device: PCs and other client devices also become a source of network lag if unable to process network data quickly enough. While modern computers are sufficiently powerful in most situations, they can slow down significantly if too many applications are running simultaneously. Even running applications that do not generate network traffic can introduce lag; for example, a misbehaving program can consume 100 percent of the available CPU utilization on a device that delays the computer from processing network traffic for other applications. Malware: A network worm hijacks a computer and its network interface, which can cause it to perform sluggishly, similar to being overloaded. Running antivirus software on network devices helps to detect these worms. Use of wireless: Enthusiast online gamers, as an example, often prefer to run their devices over wired Ethernet instead of Wi-Fi because home Ethernet supports lower latencies. While the savings is typically only a few milliseconds in practice, wired connections also avoid the risk of wireless interference that results in significant lag if it occurs. How Much Lag Is Too Much? The impact of lag depends on what a person is doing on the network and, to some degree, the level of network performance they have grown accustomed to. Users of ​satellite Internet, expect very long latencies and tend not to notice a temporary lag of an additional 50 or 100 ms. Dedicated online gamers, on the other hand, strongly prefer their network connection to run with less than 50 ms of latency and will quickly notice any lag above that level. In general, online applications perform best when network latency stays below 100 ms and any additional lag will be noticeable to users.

    Blog Entry, DATA, Hardware
  • Posted on July 13, 2017 12:03 pm
    Joseph Forbes
    No comments

    Internet or 'Net' Neutrality, by definition, means that there are no restrictions of any kind on access to content on the Web, no restrictions on downloads or uploads, and no restrictions on communication methods (email, chat, IM, etc.) It also means that access to the internet will not be blocked, slowed down, or sped up depending on where that access is based or who owns the access point(s). In essence, the internet is open to everyone. What does an open internet mean for the average Web user? When we get on the Web, we are able to access the entire Web: that means any website, any video, any download, any email. We use the Web to communicate with others, go to school, do our jobs, and connect with people all over the world. Because of the freedom that governs the Web, this access is granted without any restrictions whatsoever. Why is Net Neutrality important? Growth: Net neutrality is the reason that the Web has grown at such a phenomenal rate from the time it was created in 1991 by Sir Tim Berners-Lee (see also History of the World Wide Web). Creativity: Creativity, innovation, and unbridled inventiveness have given us Wikipedia, YouTube, Google, I Can Has Cheezburger, torrents, Hulu, The Internet Movie Database, Reddit, LifeWire, and many more. Communication: Net neutrality has given us the ability to freely communicate with people on a personal basis: government leaders, business owners, celebrities, work colleagues, medical personnel, family, etc., without restrictions.  Strong net neutrality rules should be left in place to ensure all of these things exist and thrive. If Net Neutrality rules are removed, everyone that uses the internet will lose these freedoms. Is Net Neutrality available worldwide? No. There are countries whose governments restrict their citizens’ access to the Web for political reasons. Vimeo has a great video on this very topic that explains how limiting access to the internet can impact everyone in the world. Is Net Neutrality in danger? Possibly. There are many companies that have a vested interest in making sure that access to the Web is not freely available. These companies are already in charge of most of the Web’s infrastructure, and they see potential profit in making the Web “pay for play”. This could result in restrictions on what Web users are able to search for, download, or read. Some people in the United States are even afraid that changes from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) could result in a negative net neutrality ruling. At Fight for the Future's Battle for Net Neutrality site, you can send a letter directly to FCC and Congress and let them know how you feel. You can also file a document into the official FCC proceeding to let officials know whether or not you want Net Neutrality regulations to change or remain in place. It's a super wonky form with a couple of weird things (hey, this is the government!) so follow these instructions carefully: Visit ECFS Express at the FCC website. Type 17-108 in the Proceeding(s) box. Press Enter to turn the number to a yellow/orange box. Type your first name and last name in the Name(s) of Filer(s) box. Press Enter to turn your name into a yellow/orange box. Fill in the rest of the form as you would normally fill in an internet form. Check the Email Confirmation box. Tap or click the Continue to review screen button. On the next page, tap or click the Submit button. That's it! You've made your feelings known. What would happen if Net Neutrality were to be restricted or abolished? Net neutrality is the foundation of the freedom that we enjoy on the Web. Losing that freedom could result in consequences such as restricted access to websites and diminished download rights, as well as controlled creativity and corporate-governed services. Some people call that scenario the 'end of the internet.' What are "Internet fast lanes"? How are are they related to Net neutrality?  "Internet fast lanes" are special deals and channels that would give some companies exceptional treatment as far as broadband access and internet traffic. Many people believe that this would violate the concept of net neutrality. Internet fast lanes could cause issues because instead of Internet providers being required to provide the same service for all subscribers regardless of size/company/influence, they could be able to make deals with certain companies that would give them preferred access. This practice could potentially hamper growth, strengthen illegal monopolies, and cost the consumer. In addition, an open internet is essential for a continued free exchange of information – a bedrock concept that the World Wide Web was founded upon. Net neutrality is important Net neutrality in the context of the Web is somewhat new, but the concept of neutral, publicly accessible information and transfer of that information has been around since the days of Alexander Graham Bell. Basic public infrastructure, such as subways, buses, telephone companies, etc., are not allowed to discriminate, restrict, or differentiate common access, and this is the core concept behind net neutrality as well. For those of us who appreciate the Web, and want to preserve the freedom that this amazing invention has given us to exchange information, net neutrality is a core concept that we must work to maintain.

    Blog Entry, DATA, EDUCATION
  • Posted on June 10, 2017 11:11 am
    Joseph Forbes
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    Check Point Threat Intelligence and research teams recently discovered a high volume Chinese threat operation which has infected over 250 million computers worldwide. The installed malware,  Fireball, takes over target browsers and turns them into zombies. Fireball has two main functionalities:  the ability of running any code on victim computers–downloading any file or malware, and  hijacking and manipulating infected users’ web-traffic to generate ad-revenue. Currently, Fireball installs plug-ins and additional configurations to boost its advertisements, but just as easily it can turn into a prominent distributor for any additional malware. This operation is run by Rafotech, a large digital marketing agency based in Beijing. Rafotech uses Fireball to manipulate the victims’ browsers and turn their default search engines and home-pages into fake search engines. This redirects the queries to either yahoo.com or Google.com. The fake search engines include tracking pixels used to collect the users’ private information. Fireball has the ability to  spy on victims, perform efficient malware dropping, and execute any malicious code in the infected machines, this creates a massive security flaw in targeted machines and networks.   KEY FINDINGS Check Point analysts uncovered a high volume Chinese threat operation which has infected over 250 million computers worldwide, and 20% of corporate networks. The malware, called Fireball, acts as a browser-hijacker but and can be turned into a full-functioning malware downloader. Fireball is capable of executing any code on the victim machines, resulting in a wide range of actions from stealing credentials to dropping additional malware. Fireball is spread mostly via bundling i.e. installed on victim machines alongside a wanted program, often without the user’s consent. The operation is run by Chinese digital marketing agency. Top infected countries are India (10.1%) and Brazil (9.6%)   Figure 1: Fireball Infection Flow     250 MILLIONS MACHINES AND 20% OF CORPORATE NETWORKS WORLDWIDE INFECTED The scope of the malware distribution is alarming. According to our analysis, over 250 million computers worldwide have been  infected: specifically,  25.3 million infections in India (10.1%), 24.1 million in Brazil (9.6%), 16.1 million in Mexico (6.4%), and 13.1 million in Indonesia (5.2%). The United States has  witnessed 5.5 million infections (2.2%). Based on Check Point’s global sensors,  20% of all corporate networks are affected . Hit rates in the US (10.7%) and China (4.7%) are alarming;but Indonesia (60%), India (43%) and Brazil (38%) have much more dangerous hit rates. Another indicator of the incredibly high infection rate is the popularity of Rafotech’s fake search engines. According to Alexa’s web traffic data, 14 of these fake search engines are among the top 10,000 websites, with some of them occasionally reaching the top 1,000. Figure 2: Fireball Global Infection Rates (darker pink = more infections)   Ironically, although Rafotech doesn’t admit it produces browser-hijackers and fake search engines, it does (proudly) declare itself a successful marketing agency, reaching 300 million users worldwide – coincidentally similar to our number of estimated infections. Figure 3: Rafotech’s Advertisement on the Company’s Official Website   A BACKDOOR TO EVERY INFECTED NETWORK Fireball and similar browser-hijackers are hybrid creatures, half seemingly legitimate software (see the GOING UNDER THE RADAR section), and half malware. Although Rafotech  uses Fireball only for advertising and initiating traffic to its fake search engines, it  can perform any action on the victims’ machines These actions  can have serious consequences. How severe is it? Try to imagine a pesticide armed with a nuclear bomb. Yes, it can do the job, but it can also do much more. These browser-hijackers are  capable on the browser level. This means that they can drive victims to malicious sites, spy on them and conduct successful malware dropping. From a technical perspective, Fireball displays great sophistication and quality evasion techniques, including anti-detection capabilities, multi-layer structure and a flexible C&C– it is not inferior to a typical malware. Many threat actors would like to have  a fraction of Rafotech’s power, as Fireball provides a critical backdoor, which can be further exploited.   GOING UNDER THE RADAR While the distribution of Fireball is both malicious and illegitimate, it actually carries digital certificates imparting them a legitimate appearance. Confused? You should be. Rafotech carefully walks along the edge of legitimacy, knowing that adware distribution is not considered a crime like malware distribution is. How is that? Many companies provide software or services for free, and make their profits by harvesting data or presenting advertisements. Once a client agrees to the installment of extra features or software to his/her computer, it is hard to claim malicious intent on behalf of the provider. This gray zone led to the birth of a new kind of monetizing method – bundling. Bundling is when a wanted program installs another program alongside it, sometimes with a user’s authorization and sometimes without. Rafotech uses bundling in high volume to spread Fireball.   Figure 4: Bundling in Action   According to our analysis, Rafotech’s distribution methods appear to be illegitimate and don’t follow the criteria which would allow these actions to be considered naïve or legal. The malware and the fake search engines don’t carry indicators connecting them to Rafotech, they cannot be uninstalled by an ordinary user, and they conceal their true nature. So how do they carry digital certificates? One possibility is that issuers make their living from providing certificates, and small issuers with flexible ethics can enjoy the lack of clarity in the adware world’s legality to approve software such as Rafotech’s browser-hijackers. THE INFECTION MODEL As with other types of malware, there are many ways for Fireball to spread. We suspect that two popular vectors are bundling the malware to other Rafotech products – Deal Wifi and Mustang Browser – as well as bundling via other freeware distributors: products such as “Soso Desktop”, “FVP Imageviewer” and others. It’s important to remember that when a user installs freeware, additional malware isn’t necessarily dropped at the same time. If you download a suspicious freeware and nothing happens on the spot, it doesn’t necessarily mean that something isn’t happening behind the scenes. Furthermore, it is likely that Rafotech is using additional distribution methods, such as spreading freeware under fake names, spam, or even buying installs from threat actors. As with everything in the internet, remember that there are no free lunches. When you download freeware, or use cost-free services (streaming and downloads, for example), the service provider is making profit somehow. If it’s not from you or from advertisements, it will come from somewhere else.   Figure 5: Deal Wifi Installation Screen   HOW CAN I KNOW IF I AM INFECTED? To check if you’re infected, first open your web browser. Was your home-page set by you? Are you able to modify it? Are you familiar with your default search engine and can modify that as well? Do you remember installing all of your browser extensions? If the answer to any of these questions is “NO”, this is a sign that you’re infected with adware. You can also use a recommended adware scanner, just to be extra cautious. Figure 6: trotux.com; a Fake Search Engine Run by Rafotech     THE RED BUTTON IN THE WRONG HANDS It doesn’t take much to imagine a scenario in which Rafotech decides to harvest sensitive information from all of its infected machines, and sell this data to threat groups or business rivals. Banking and credit card credentials, medical files, patents and business plans can all be widely exposed and abused by threat actors for various purposes. Based on our estimated infection rate, in such a scenario, one out of five corporations worldwide will be susceptible to a major breach. Severe damage can be caused to key organizations, from major service providers to critical infrastructure operators to medical institutions. The potential loss is indescribable, and repairing the damage caused by such massive data leakage (if even possible) could take years. Rafotech holds the power to initiate a global catastrophe and it is not alone. During our research we’ve tracked down additional browser-hijackers that, to our understanding, were developed by other companies. One such company is ELEX Technology, an Internet Services company also based in Beijing  produces products similar to those of Rafotech. Several findings lead us to suspect that the two companies are related, and may be collaborating in the distribution of browser-hijackers or in trading customers’ traffic. For example, an adware developed by ELEX, named YAC (“Yet Another Cleaner”) is suspected to be connected to Rafotech’s operation, dropping its browser-hijackers.   CONCLUSION In this research we’ve described Rafotech’s browser-hijackers operation – possibly the largest infection operation in history. We believe that although this is not a typical malware attack campaign, it has the potential to cause irreversible damage to its victims as well as worldwide internet users, and therefore it must be blocked by security companies. The full distribution of Fireball is not yet known, but it is clear that it presents a great threat to the global cyber ecosystem. With a quarter billion infected machines and a grip in one of every five corporate networks, Rafotech’s activities make it an immense threat.   HOW DO I REMOVE THE MALWARE, ONCE INFECTED? To remove almost any adware, follow these simple steps: Uninstall the adware by removing the application from the Programs and Features list in the Windows Control Panel.   For Mac OS users: Use the Finder to locate the Applications Drag the suspicious file to the Trash. Empty the Trash.   Note – A usable program is not always installed on the machine and therefore may not be found on the program list.   Scan and clean your machine, using: Anti-Malware software Adware cleaner software   Remove malicious Add-ons, extensions or plug-ins from your browser: On Google Chrome:a.       Click the Chrome menu icon and select Tools > Extensions. b.      Locate and select any suspicious Add-ons. c.       Click the trash can icon to delete.   On Internet Explorer:a.       Click the Setting icon and select Manage Add-ons. b.      Locate and remove any malicious Add-ons. On Mozilla Firefox:a.       Click the Firefox menu icon and go to the Tools tab. b.      Select Add-ons > Extensions. A new window opens. c.       Remove any suspicious Add-ons. d.      Go to the Add-ons manager > Plugins. e.      Locate and disable any malicious plugins.   On Safari:a.       Make sure the browser is active. b.      Click the Safari tab and select preferences. A new window opens. c.       Select the Extensions tab. d.      Locate and uninstall any suspicious extensions.     Restore your internet browser to its default settings: On Google Chrome:a.       Click the Chrome menu icon, and select Settings. b.      In the On startup section, click Set Pages. c.       Delete the malicious pages from the Startup pages list. d.      Find the Show Home button option and select Change. e.      In the Open this page field, delete the malicious search engine page. f.        In the Search section, select Manage search engines. g.       Select the malicious search engine page and remove from the list. On Internet Explorer:a.       Select the Tools tab and then select Internet Options. A new window opens. b.      In the Advanced tab, select Reset. c.       Check the Delete personal settings box. d.      Click the Reset button. On Mozilla Firefox:a.       Enable the browser Menu Bar by clicking the blank space near the page tabs. b.      Click the Help tab, and go to Troubleshooting information. A new window opens. c.       Select Reset Firefox. On Safari:a.       Select the Safari tab and then select Preferences. A new window opens. b.      In the Privacy tab, the Manage Website Data… button. A new window opens. c.       Click the Remove All button.           INDICATORS OF COMPROMISE C&C addresses attirerpage[.]com s2s[.]rafotech[.]com trotux[.]com startpageing123[.]com funcionapage[.]com universalsearches[.]com thewebanswers[.]com nicesearches[.]com youndoo[.]com giqepofa[.]com mustang-browser[.]com forestbrowser[.]com luckysearch123[.]com ooxxsearch[.]com search2000s[.]com walasearch[.]com hohosearch[.]com yessearches[.]com d3l4qa0kmel7is[.]cloudfront[.]net d5ou3dytze6uf[.]cloudfront[.]net d1vh0xkmncek4z[.]cloudfront[.]net d26r15y2ken1t9[.]cloudfront[.]net d11eq81k50lwgi[.]cloudfront[.]net ddyv8sl7ewq1w[.]cloudfront[.]net d3i1asoswufp5k[.]cloudfront[.]net dc44qjwal3p07[.]cloudfront[.]net dv2m1uumnsgtu[.]cloudfront[.]net d1mxvenloqrqmu[.]cloudfront[.]net dfrs12kz9qye2[.]cloudfront[.]net dgkytklfjrqkb[.]cloudfront[.]net dgkytklfjrqkb[.]cloudfront[.]net/main/trmz[.]exe   File Hashes FAB40A7BDE5250A6BC8644F4D6B9C28F 69FFDF99149D19BE7DC1C52F33AAA651 B56D1D35D46630335E03AF9ADD84B488 8C61A6937963507DC87D8BF00385C0BC 7ADB7F56E81456F3B421C01AB19B1900 84DCB96BDD84389D4449F13EAC75098 2B307E28CE531157611825EB0854C15F 7B2868FAA915A7FC6E2D7CC5A965B1E

    Hacking, Internet, Internet Scam Notices
  • Posted on April 25, 2017 12:25 pm
    Joseph Forbes
    No comments

    What DLNA Is DLNA stands for Digital Living Network Alliance. The DLNA is a trade organization that was founded to set standards and guidelines via a certification program for home networking media devices, including many PCs, Smartphones/Tablets, Smart TVs, Blu-ray Disc Players, and Network Media players. DLNA certification lets the consumer know that once connected to your home network, it will automatically communicate with other connected DLNA certified products. DLNA certified devices can: find and play movies; send, display and/or upload photos, find, send, play and/or download music; and send and print photos between compatible network-connected devices. Some examples of DLNA compatibility include the following: If your smartphone and TV are DLNA certified, you should be able to send audio and video from your smartphone to your TV via your home network. If your TV or Blu-ray Disc player and PC are DLNA certified, you should be able to access audio, video, and still-image files stored on your network connected PC and see or listen on through your TV or Blu-ray Disc player. If you have a DLNA certified digital camera, you can send images, using your home network, to your TV, DLNA certified PC or another compatible device. The History of DLNA In the early years of networking home entertainment, it was difficult and confusing to add a new device and get it to communicate with your computers and other network devices. You might have had to know IP addresses and add each device separately along with crossing your fingers for good luck. DLNA has changed all that. The Digital Living Network Alliance (DLNA) was started in 2003 when several manufacturers got together to create a standard, and implement certification requirements so that all products made by participating manufacturers were compatible in a home network. This meant that certified products were compatible even if they were made by different manufacturers. Different Certifications for Each Device's Role in Sharing Media Products that are DLNA certified typically are recognized, with little or no setup, as soon as you connect them to your network. DLNA certification means that the device plays a role in your home network and that other DLNA products can communicate with it based on their own roles. Some products store the media. Some products control the media and some products play the media. There is a certification for each of these roles. Within each certification, there are DLNA guidelines for Ethernet and WiFi connectivity, for hardware requirements, for software or firmware requirements, for the user interface, for instructions to make the device networkable, and for displaying different formats of media files. "It's like a car's all point inspection," said Alan Messer, DLNA board member and Senior Director of Convergence Technologies and Standards for Samsung Electronics. "Each aspect must pass testing to get a DLNA certification." Through testing and certification, consumers are assured that they can connect DLNA certified products and be able to save, share, stream and show digital media. Images, music, and video stored on one DLNA certified device -- a computer, network attached storage (NAS) drive or media server--will play on other DLNA certified devices -- TVs, AV receivers, and other computers on the network. The DLNA certification is based on product types and categories. It makes more sense if you break it down. Your media lives (is stored) on a hard drive somewhere. The media must be accessible served up to be shown on other devices. The device where the media lives are the Digital Media Server. Another device plays the video, music, and photos so you can watch them. This is the Digital Media Player. Certification can either be built into the hardware or be part of a software application/program that is running on the device. This particularly relates to network attached storage (NAS) drives and computers.  Twonky, TVersity, and TV Mobili are popular software products that act as digital media servers and can be found by other DLNA devices. DLNA Product Categories Made Simple When you connect a DLNA certified network media component to your home network, it simply appears in other networked components' menus. Your computers and other media devices discover and recognize the device without any setup. DLNA certifies home network products by the role they play in your home network. Some products play media. Some products store the media and make it accessible to media players. And still others control and direct media from its source to a particular player in the network. By understanding the different certifications, you can understand how the home network puzzle fits together. When using media sharing software and devices, you see a list of these categories of devices. Knowing what they are and what they do will help to make sense of your home network. While a digital media player obviously plays media, the names of other devices are not as evident. Basic Media Sharing DLNA Certification Categories Digital Media Player (DMP) - The certification category applies to devices that can find and play media from other devices and computers. A certified media player lists the components (sources) where your media is saved. You choose the photos, music or videos that you want to play from a list of media on the player's menu. The media then streams to the player. A media player may be connected to or built into a TV, Blu-ray Disc player and/or home theater AV receiver, so you can watch or listen to the media it is playing. Digital Media Server (DMS) - The certification category applies to devices that store a media library. It may be a computer, a network attached storage (NAS) drive, a smartphone, a DLNA certified networkable digital camera or camcorder, or a network media server device. A media server must have a hard drive or a memory card on which the media is saved. The media saved to the device can be called up by a digital media player. The media server makes the files available to stream media to the player so you can watch or listen to it. Digital Media Renderer (DMR) - The certification category is similar to the digital media player category. The device is this category also play digital media. However, the difference is that DMR-certified devices can be seen by a digital media controller (further explanation below), and media can be streamed to it from a digital media server. While a digital media player can only play what it can see on its menu, a digital media renderer can be controlled externally. Some certified Digital Media Players are also certified as Digital Media Renderers. Both stand-alone network media players and networked TVs and home theater AV receivers can be certified as Digital Media Renderers. Digital Media Controller (DMC)- This certification category applies to go-between devices that can find media on a Digital Media Server and send it to the Digital Media Renderer. Often smartphones, tablets, computer software like Twonky Beam, or even cameras or camcorders are certified as Digital Media Controllers. More On DLNA Certifications Often you will see the DLNA logo on a product or product description. But rarely will you see what certification it has been given. To know a product's capabilities, you need to know its certification. The DLNA website lists many products under each certification. This can help you to find what you need -- a Digital Media Server, a Digital Media Player, a Digital Media Controller, or a Digital Media Renderer. Other DLNA certification categories that include those for digital media printers and specific certifications for mobile devices.The mobile certifications include Mobile Digital Media Server, Mobile Digital Media Player, and Mobile Digital Media Controller.There are also DLNA certifications for Mobile Digital Media Uploader and Mobile Digital Media Downloader. These certifications relate to the mobile device's ability to upload media through the network to a computer or other media server. An uploader can send files to be saved on a media server. A camera may have this ability so you don't have to connect directly to the computer or another device. Similarly, a mobile digital media downloader can find media on your computers or media servers and save the file to itself. For example, you can find music in your music library and load it to your phone via the home network. Windows 7, Windows 8, and Windows 10 are compatible with DLNA as a Digital Media Server, Digital Media Renderer and Digital Media Controller. However, you will need to set up the media sharing and network home group. More and more Digital Media Players are also Digital Media Renderers. This means that you can send files to play on it or you can choose files from sources directly from the player's menu. If you are looking at the list of digital media renderers on your controller -- smartphone or computer app, or camera-- and you don't see a media player that is connected to your home network, then it is not a Digital Media Renderer. You can not send media to that device. Once you have used a Digital Media Controller to start playback from the Digital Media Server (the media library's source) to the Digital Media Renderer (that's playing the streamed media), you no longer need the controller. In other words, if you used a cell phone to start the playback, you could leave with the phone and the playback would continue. More Info Understanding the DLNA certifications helps you to understand what is possible in home networking. DLNA makes it possible to walk in with your cell phone loaded with photos and videos from your day at the beach, press a button and start it playing on your TV without making any connections. A great example of DLNA in action is Samsung's "AllShare"(TM). AllShare is built into Samsung's line of DLNA certified networked entertainment products -- from cameras to laptops, to TVs, home theaters and Blu-ray Disc players--creating a truly connected home entertainment experience. For a complete rundown on Samsung AllShare - refer to our supplementary reference article: Samsung AllShare Simplifies Media Streaming Digital Living Network Alliance Update As of January 5, 2017, the DLNA has disbanded as a non-profit trade organization and has relinquished all certification and other related support services to Spirespark, going forward from February 1, 2017. For more details, refer to the Official Announcement and FAQs posted by the Digital Living Network Alliance.

    Blog Entry, Cloud Apps, TECHNOLOGY