• Posted on January 26, 2017 11:55 am
    Joseph Forbes
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    Keeping track of passwords can seem like a hassle. Most of us have multiple sites we visit which require password logins. So many, in fact, that it's tempting to use the same username/password combo for all of them. Don't. Otherwise, it takes only the compromise of a single site's credentials to have a toppling domino affect on the security of all your online assets. Fortunately, there is a fairly straightforward way to have different passwords for each site you use but still make the passwords easy enough to remember. Creating Unique Passwords Before you begin creating strong passwords, you need to consider the use of those passwords. The intent is to create strong passwords unique to each account, but easy enough to memorize. To do this, first begin by splitting the sites you frequently login to into categories. For example, your category list might read as follows: social networking sites auction sites ecommerce sites email accounts banking sites forums A word of note here about forums. Never use the same password for a site's forum as you would for logging into the site itself. Generally speaking, the security on forums is not as strong as it is (or should be) for the regular site and thus the forum becomes the weakest link in your security. This is why, in the example above, forums are split into a separate category. Now that you have your categories, under each appropriate category, list the sites to which you must log in. For example, if you have a Hotmail, gmail, and Yahoo account, list these under the category 'email accounts'. After you've completed the list, you're ready to begin creating the strong, unique, and easy-to-remember passwords for each. Creating Strong Passwords A strong password should be 14 characters. Each character less than that makes it a little easier to compromise. If a site absolutely won't allow a password that long, then adapt these instructions accordingly. Using the 14 character password rule, use the first 8 characters as the common portion to all passwords, the next 3 to customize by category, and the last 3 to customize by site. So the end result ends up like this: common(8)|category(3)|site(3) Following this simple rule, when you change your passwords in the future - which, remember, you should do often - you'll only need to change the first common 8 characters of each. One of the commonly recommended means of remembering a password is to first create a passphrase, modify it to the character limit, then begin swapping characters for symbols. So to do that: Come up with an 8 letter passphrase that is easy to remember. Take the first letter of each word to form the password. Substitute some of the letters in the word with keyboard symbols and caps (symbols are better than caps). Tack on a three letter abbreviation for the category, also replacing one of the letters with a symbol. Tack on a site specific three letter abbreviation, again replacing a single letter with a symbol. As an example: In step 1 we might use the pass phrase: my favorite uncle was an air force pilot Using the first letters of each word, we end up with: mfuwaafp Then we swap some of those characters with symbols and caps: Mf{w&A5p Then we tack on the category, (i.e. ema for email, and swap out one character of ema: e#a Finally, we add the site abbreviation (i.e. gma for gmail) and swap out one character: gm% We now have a password for our gmail account of Mf{w&A5pe#agm% Repeat for each email site, so perhaps you end up with: Mf{w&A5pe#agm% Mf{w&A5pe#aY%h Mf{w&A5pe#aH0t Now repeat these steps for the additional categories and sites within those categories. While this may look hard to remember, here's a tip to simplify - decide in advance what symbol you will equate with each letter. Be sure to check out these other tips for remembering passwords. You may be surprised to learn that some of the oldest advice may just be the wrong advice.

    Blog Entry, DATA, Internet
  • Posted on January 17, 2017 11:59 am
    Joseph Forbes
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    If you want to completely erase a hard drive, it's not as easy as deleting everything on it. To truly erase hard drive data forever, you'll have to take some extra steps. When you format a hard drive you don't actually erase the hard drive of data, you only erase the location information for the data, making it "lost" to the operating system. Since the operating system can't see the data, the drive looks empty when you look at its contents. However, all the data is still there and, unless you truly erase the hard drive, can be recovered using special software or hardware. The most responsible thing you can do before recycling a hard drive, or even disposing of one, is to completely erase the hard drive. If you don't erase the hard drive, you risk exposing sensitive personal data that you previously deleted - data like social security numbers, account numbers, passwords, etc. According to most governments and standards organizations, there are only three effective methods of erasing a hard drive, the best of which depends on your budget and future plans for the hard drive: 1 Wipe the Hard Drive Using Free Data Destruction Software DBAN (Darik's Boot and Nuke) Hard Drive Wiping Program.By far, the easiest way to completely erase a hard drive is to use free data destruction software, sometimes called hard drive eraser software or disk wipe software. Regardless of what you call it, a data destruction program is a piece of software designed to overwrite a hard drive so many times, and in a certain way, as to make the ability to extract information from the drive nearly impossible. Some more stringent hard drive erasing standards forbid using data destruction software, probably because of the possibility of user error and the variety of software and methods that exist. However, as long as your drive doesn't contain national security information, you should feel very comfortable using any one of these programs to erase a hard drive. How To Wipe a Hard Drive Important: You must erase a hard drive using this method if you, or someone else, ever plans on using the drive again. The next two ways to erase a hard drive will make the drive unusable. For example, you should erase a hard drive this way if you're selling or giving the drive away. 2 Use a Degausser to Erase the Hard Drive Garner HD-2 Hard Drive Degausser. © Garner Products, Inc.Another way to permanently erase a hard drive is to use a degausser to disrupt the magnetic domains on the drive - the very way that a hard drive stores data. Some NSA approved automatic degaussers can erase dozens of hard drives in an hour and cost tens of thousands of dollars US. NSA approved degaussing wands, used to manually degauss a hard drive, can be purchased for around $500 USD. Important: Degaussing a modern hard drive will also erase the drive's firmware, rendering the drive completely useless. If you want to erase a hard drive, but also want it to work properly after being erased, you must erase the drive using data destruction software (option 1, above) instead. Note: For the average computer owner or organization, degaussing probably isn't a cost effective way to completely erase a hard drive. In most cases, physically destroying the drive (below) is the best solution if the drive isn't needed any more. 3 Physically Destroy the Hard Drive Shattered Hard Drive Platter. © Jon Ross (Flickr)Physically destroying a hard drive is the only way to absolutely and forever ensure that the data on it is no longer available. Just as there is no way to extract the written information from a burned piece of paper, there is no way to read the data from a hard drive that is no longer a hard drive. According to the National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication 800-88 [PDF], "Destruction of media is the ultimate form of sanitization." Most of the standards that exist to erase a hard drive mention several ways to physically destroy one including disintegration, grinding, pulverization, incineration, melting, and shredding. You can destroy a hard drive yourself by nailing or drilling through it several times, making sure the hard drive platter is being penetrated each time. In fact, any method of destroying the hard drive platter is sufficient including sanding the platter after being removed or shattering it (as shown here). Warning: Wear safety goggles and take great caution destroying a hard drive yourself. NEVER burn a hard drive, put a hard drive in a microwave, or pour acid on a hard drive. If you'd rather not destroy your hard drive yourself, several companies offer the service for a fee. A few services will even fire a round of bullets through your hard drive and send you the video!

    Blog Entry, DATA
  • Posted on January 15, 2017 11:56 am
    Joseph Forbes
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    The first thing to do after installing a hard drive is to partition it. You have to partition a hard drive, and then format it, before you can use it to store data. To partition a hard drive in Windows means to section off a part of it and make that part available to the operating system. Most of the time, the "part" of the hard drive is the entire usable space, but creating multiple partitions on a hard drive is also possible. Don't worry if this sounds like more than you thought - partitioning a hard drive in Windows isn't hard and usually only takes a few minutes to do. Follow the easy steps below to partition a hard drive in Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, or Windows XP: Note: Manually partitioning (as well as formatting) a hard drive is not necessary if your end goal is to install Windows onto the drive. Both of those processes are included as part of the installation procedure, meaning you don't need to prepare the drive yourself. How To Partition a Hard Drive in Windows Open Disk Management, the tool included in all versions of Windows that lets you partition drives, among a number of other things.. Note: In Windows 10 and Windows 8/8.1, the Power User Menu is the easiest way to start Disk Management. You can also start Disk Management via command-line in any version of Windows but the Computer Management method is probably best for most people. When Disk Management opens, you should see an Initialize Disk window with the message "You must initialize a disk before Logical Disk Manager can access it." Tip: Don't worry if this window doesn't appear. There are legitimate reasons you may not see it - we'll know soon if there's a problem or not. Skip on to Step 4 if you don't see this. Note: In Windows XP, you'll see an Initialize an Convert Disk Wizard screen instead. Follow that wizard, making sure to not select the option to "convert" the disk, unless you're sure you need to. Skip to Step 4 when done. On this screen, you're asked to choose a partition style for the new hard drive. Choose GPT if the new hard drive you installed is 2 TB or larger. Choose MBR if it's smaller than 2 TB. Tap or click OK after making your selection. Locate the hard drive you want to partition from the drive map at the bottom of the Disk Management window. Tip: You may need to maximize the Disk Management or Computer Management window to see all the drives on the bottom. An unpartitioned drive will not show up in the drive list at the top of the window. Note: If the hard drive is new, it will probably be on a dedicated row labeled Disk 1 (or 2, etc.) and will say Unallocated. If the space you want to partition is part of an existing drive, you'll see Unallocated next to existing partitions on that drive. Important: If you don't see the drive you want to partition, you may have installed it incorrectly. Turn off your computer and double-check that the hard drive is properly installed. Once you've found the space you want to partition, tap-and-hold or right-click anywhere on it and choose New Simple Volume.... In Windows XP, the option is called New Partition.... Tap or click Next > on the New Simple Volume Wizard window that appeared. In Windows XP, a Select Partition Type screen appears next, where you should choose Primary partition. The Extended partition option is useful only if you're creating five or more partitions on a single physical hard drive. Click Next > after making the selection. Tap or click Next > on the Specify Volume Size step to confirm the size of the drive you're creating. Note: The default size that you see in the Simple volume size in MB: field should equal the amount shown in the Maximum disk space in MB: field. This means that you're creating a partition that equals the total available space on the physical hard drive. Tip: You're welcome to create multiple partitions, that will eventually become multiple, independent drives in Windows. To do so, calculate how many and how large you want those drives to be and repeat these steps to create those partitions. Tap or click Next > on the Assign Drive Letter or Path step, assuming the default drive letter you see is OK with you. Note: Windows automatically assigns the first available drive letter, skipping A & B, which on most computers will be D or E. You're welcome to set the Assign the following drive letter option to anything that's available. Tip: You're also welcome to change the letter assigned to this hard drive later on if you want. See How to Change Drive Letters in Windows for help doing that. Choose Do not format this volume on the Format Partition step and then tap or click Next > Note: If you know what you're doing, feel free to format the drive as part of this process. However, since this tutorial focuses on partitioning a hard drive in Windows, I've left the formatting to another tutorial, linked in the last step below. Verify your choices on the Completing the New Simple Volume Wizard screen, which should look something like this: Volume Type: Simple Volume Disk selected: Disk 1 Volume size: 10206 MB Drive letter or path: D: File system: None Allocation unit size: Default Note: Because your computer and hard drive are unlikely exactly like mine, expect your Disk selected, Volume size, and Drive letter or path values to be different that what you see here. File system: None just means that you've decided not to also format the drive right now. Tap or click on the Finish button and Windows will partition the drive, a process that will only take a few seconds on most computers. Note: You may notice that your cursor is busy during this time. Once you see the new drive letter (D: in my example) appear in the listing at the top of Disk Management, then you know the partitioning process is complete. Next, Windows tries to open the new drive. However, since it's not yet formatted and can't be used, you'll see a "You need to format the disk in drive D: before you can use it. Do you want to format it?" instead. Note: This only happens in Windows 10, Windows 8, and Windows 7. You won't see this in Windows Vista or Windows XP and that's perfectly fine. Just skip to Step 14 if you're using one of those versions of Windows. Tap or click Cancel and then proceed to Step 14 below. Tip: If you're familiar with the concepts involved with formatting a hard drive, feel free to choose Format disk instead. You can use my tutorial linked in the next step as a general guide if you need to. Continue to my How To Format a Hard Drive in Windows tutorial for instructions on formatting this partitioned drive so you can use it. Advanced Partitioning Windows doesn't allow for anything but very basic partition management after you create one, but a number of software programs exist that can help if you need them.

    Blog Entry, DATA
  • Posted on January 5, 2017 11:24 am
    Joseph Forbes
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    You’re not really sure How the Heck They Got Your Password, but they did, and now you’re freaking out. The password to one of your accounts has been cracked and you don’t know what to do to get control back of your account. Let’s look at several things you can do to get control of your account and get things back to a secure state: If Someone Cracked Your Password But You Can Still Log Into Your Account The worst case scenario is that your account password gets hacked and the hackers change your password. Hopefully the security questions that you answered when you set up your account will help you regain control of your account and allow you to reset your password back and lock them out. What if there aren’t any security questions? Many accounts have a password reset process that will allow you to initiate a reset using an email account that you have on file with the account provider. Unless the hacker has changed this email address, you should be able to regain control of your account by having the password reset link sent to your email. If They’ve Taken Control Of Your Account and Locked You Out By Changing The Password If the person who cracked your password has locked you out by changing your password then getting it reset might be a little more complicated. You may need to contact the account support line of the account provider and explain the situation, they should be able to verify that you are who you say you are via other means such as by looking at the phone numbers you have on file, verifying your address, or reviewing the answers to your security questions. Make sure that you inform the account provider that this just happened and that any new information recently added to your account is false and that you want to place your account on hold until everything is sorted out. Reporting the password hack quickly is essential to limiting the damage. If The Account Was Your Main Email Account If your main email account is hacked then things can become even more complicated because, chances are, you have a lot of other accounts pointing to your email account for password reset purposes. Thankfully most email providers have multiple ways of verifying that you are whom you say you are. Follow their account password reset procedures and if all else fails contact their account support. The next step you should take after resetting your main (hacked) email account password is to change all passwords for any other account that you have that point to that account for password reset purposes. The reason: the password crackers could have initiated password resets for those other accounts. Steps to Take To Prevent it From Happening Again: Make Your Next Password Much Stronger When creating passwords to replace ones that have been cracked, you need to create a much stronger, longer, and more complex password. For tips on creating strong passwords, check out our article: How to Make a Strong Password. Use Two-factor Authentication If It’s Offered Another way to prevent future account compromises is to enable two-factor authentication on the accounts that support it. Two-factor authentication usually requires some kind of token, such as a PIN that is sent by the account provider via an already established communication line that you have verified, such as a mobile phone or secondary email account. Other methods of two-factor authentication use fingerprint readers such as those featured on newer iPhones, iPads, and some Android devices. Linking these devices to your account works in two ways.  If you never lose your phone, you will always be notified of when someone or you are accessing online accounts.  If you lose your phone, then someone has your whole life in their hands.

    Blog Entry, DATA, Data Recovery
  • Posted on December 30, 2016 10:00 am
    Joseph Forbes
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      It's a really awful way to start a day: you press the power button on your computer and nothing happens. Few computer problems are more frustrating than when your computer won't boot. There are many reasons why a computer won't turn on and often very few clues about what might be the problem. The only symptom is usually the simple fact that "nothing works" which isn't much to go on. Add to this the fact that whatever is causing your computer not to start could be an expensive part of your PC to replace - like the motherboard or CPU. Do not fear because all may not be lost! Here's what you need to do: Read #1 below (it'll make you feel better). Pick the best troubleshooting guide (#2 - #9) based on how your computer is acting or #10 if your PC stops at any point because of an error message. Note: The "computer won't start" troubleshooting guides below apply to all PC devices. In other words, they'll help if your desktop or laptop won't turn on, or even if your tablet won't turn on. I'll call out any important differences along the way. Also, all are applicable no matter what Windows operating system you have installed on your hard drive, including Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP. Steps 1 through 5 even apply to other PC operating systems like Linux.   Don't Panic! Your Files are Probably OK When faced with a computer that won't start most people tend to panic, worried that all the data on their PC is gone forever. It's true that the most common reason a computer won't start is because a piece of hardware has failed or is causing a problem but that hardware isn't usually a hard drive, the part of your computer that stores all of your files. In other words, your music, documents, emails, and videos are probably safe - just not accessible at the moment. So take a deep breath and try to relax. There's a good chance you can figure out exactly why your computer won't start and then get it back up and running. 1.  Don't Want to Fix This Yourself? See How Do I Get My Computer Fixed? for a full list of your support options, plus help with everything along the way like figuring out repair costs, getting your files off, choosing a repair service, and a whole lot more. 2.  Computer Shows No Sign of Power Try these steps if your computer will not turn on and is showing no sign at all of receiving power - no fans running and no lights on the laptop or tablet, nor on the front of the computer's case if you're using a desktop. Important: You may or may not see a light on the back of your desktop PC depending on the kind of power supply you have and the exact cause of the problem. This goes for the power adapter you may be using for your tablet or laptop as well. How To Fix a Computer That Shows No Sign of Power Note: Don't worry about the monitor yet, assuming you're using a desktop or an external display. If the computer is not turning on because of a power issue then the monitor certainly can't display anything from the computer. Your monitor light will likely be amber/yellow if your computer has stopped sending information to it. 3.  Computer Powers On... and Then Off Follow these steps if, when you turn your computer on, it promptly powers back off. You'll probably hear the fans inside your computer turn on, see some or all of the lights on your computer turn on or flash, and then it will all stop. You won't see anything on the screen and you may or may not hear beeps coming from the computer before it shuts off by itself. How To Fix a Computer That Turns On and Then Off Note: As in the previous scenario, don't worry about the state your external monitor is in, if you have one. You may have a monitor issue as well but it's not possible to troubleshoot it quite yet. 4.  Computer Powers On But Nothing Happens If your computer seems to be receiving power after turning it on but you don't see anything on the screen, try these troubleshooting steps. In these situations, the power lights will stay on, you'll likely hear the fans inside your computer running (assuming it has any), and you may or may not hear one or more beeps coming from the computer. How To Fix a Computer That Turns On But Displays Nothing This situation is probably the most common in my experience working with computers that won't start. Unfortunately it's also one of the most difficult to troubleshoot. 5.  Computer Stops or Continuously Reboots During the POST Use this guide when your computer powers on, shows at least something on the screen, but then stops, freezes, or reboots over and over again during the Power On Self Test (POST). The POST on your computer may happen in the background, behind your computer maker's logo (as shown here with the Dell laptop), or you may actually see frozen test results or other messages on the screen. How To Fix Stopping, Freezing, and Reboot Issues During the POST Important: Don't use this troubleshooting guide if you encounter an issue during the loading of the operating system, which occurs after the Power On Self Test is complete. Troubleshooting Windows related reasons why your computer won't turn on begin with #6 below. 6.  Windows Begins to Load But Stops or Reboots on a BSOD If your computer begins to load Windows but then stops and displays a blue screen with information on it then try these steps. You may or may not see the Windows splash screen before the blue screen appears. This kind of error is called a STOP error but is more commonly referred to as a Blue Screen of Death or a BSOD. Receiving a BSOD error is a common reason why a computer won't turn on. How To Fix Blue Screen of Death Errors Important: Choose this troubleshooting guide even if the BSOD flashes on screen and your computer restarts automatically without giving you time to read what it says. 7.  Windows Begins to Load But Stops or Reboots Without an Error Try these steps when your computer powers on, starts to load Windows, but then freezes, stops, or reboots over and over again without generating any kind of error message. The stopping, freezing, or reboot loop may happen on the Windows splash screen (shown here) or even on a black screen, with or without a flashing cursor. How To Fix Stopping, Freezing, and Reboot Issues During Windows Startup Important: If you suspect that the Power On Self Test is still going on and that Windows has not yet started to boot, a better troubleshooting guide for why your computer won't turn on might be #5 above. It's a fine line and sometimes hard to tell. Note: If your computer won't start and you see a blue screen flash or remain on the screen, you're experiencing a Blue Screen of Death and should use troubleshooting guide #6 above. 8.  Windows Repeatedly Returns to Startup Settings or ABO Use this guide when nothing but the Startup Settings(Windows 8 - shown here) or Advanced Boot Options(Windows 7/Vista/XP) screen appears every time your restart your computer and none of the Windows startup options work. In this situation, no matter which Safe Mode option you choose, your computer eventually stops, freezes, or restarts on its own, after which you find yourself right back at the Startup Settings or Advanced Boot Options menu. How To Fix a Computer That Always Stops at Startup Settings or Advanced Boot Options This is a particularly annoying way in which your computer won't turn on because you're trying to use Windows' built-in ways to solve your problem but you're getting nowhere with them. 9.  Windows Stops or Reboots On or After the Login Screen Try this troubleshooting guide when your computer powers on, Windows shows the login screen, but then freezes, stops, or reboots here or anytime after. How To Fix Stopping, Freezing, and Reboot Issues During Windows Login The stopping, freezing, or reboot loop may happen on the Windows login screen, as Windows is logging you in (as shown here), or any time up to Windows fully loading. NTLDR is Missing. 10.  Computer Doesn't Fully Start Because of an Error Message If your computer turns on but then stops or freezes at any point, showing an error message of any kind, then use this troubleshooting guide. Error messages are possible at any stage during your computer's boot process, including during the POST, at any time during the loading of Windows, all the way up to the Windows desktop appearing. How To Fix Errors Seen During the Computer Startup Process Note: The only exception to using this troubleshooting guide for an error message is if the error is a Blue Screen of Death. See #6 above for a better troubleshooting guide for BSOD issues.

    Blog Entry, DATA, Data Recovery
  • Posted on December 28, 2016 8:53 am
    Joseph Forbes
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    If you were anywhere near the internet in the U.S. on Friday (Nov 2016), you probably noticed a bunch of your favorite websites were down for much of the day. Now experts are saying it’s all because thousands of devices – like DVRs and web-connected cameras – were hacked. Once the hackers had control over these devices, they manipulated them into sending an overwhelming number of requests to a company that serves up the websites for Netflix, Google, Spotify and Twitter. When the traffic became too much to handle, the sites crashed. It was an old-school attack – often called a distributed denial of service attack, or DDoS – powered by the new web of devices called the internet of things or IoT. Security experts have been warning for a few years that internet-connected devices are susceptible to hacking. They just didn’t know exactly what hackers might do once they broke into your connected television, refrigerator or thermometer, for example. (Other than some disturbing hacks on baby monitors, that is.) Now we have our answer, and it’s worse than what the experts imagined. Focusing on security cameras and DVRs that record footage in businesses outside of the U.S., hackers created an army of devices to take down large chunks of the internet. It’s not all the device manufacturers’ fault. Websites and services will have to adapt and do more to prevent attacks like these from being so effective if we want to keep the internet up and running. Here’s a primer on why the devices are so easy to hack, and how hackers turned them into a zombie army that attacked the internet. How internet-connected devices are easily taken over DVRs and security camera are connected to the internet. That’s on purpose, of course. This feature lets users access them remotely, along with anyone else they need to let in. It’s what lets users check in on security cameras when no one’s at home or at a business, and what lets manufacturers update device software without making a house call. But this feature is also kind of a bug. Devices in the so-called internet of things are stupid-easy to connect to remotely by just about anyone, not just those with whom you want to share access. If something is connected to the internet, it has an IP address. If something has an IP address, it can be found on search engines like Google and Shodan, a searchable registry of IP addresses with information about the connected device. Hackers can find hundreds or thousands of hackable DVRs and cameras just by entering some search terms. Then, they try to break in... How hackers can break into your devices Internet-connected devices often come with default passwords. Think you’re the only one whose username and password are “admin” and “admin”? Many, if not most, device makers don’t require you to set a unique username and password, so many people end up sticking with the defaults. Hackers can find a list of vulnerable DVRs on search engines and try out that default password. If you never changed it, they’re in. But even if you do change those defaults, hackers have other options. Advanced methods utilizing services called SSH and telnet let hackers force their way into your device, since changing the password on your device’s web app does not necessarily change the password coded into the device. So while the camera was storing security video to prevent crime, hackers were quietly brute-forcing their way into the DVR and adding it to their army of attack soldiers. So how did a camera take down Twitter? To take over the cameras, hackers inserted Mirai, malicious software that lets bad guys use at least 100,000 devices as soldiers in its zombie army. That’s according to Flashpoint, a cybersecurity company that has been tracking the proliferation of Mirai across the internet of things since it was first used in a massive attack in September. The technical name for this zombie army is a botnet, and hackers have been making them out of computers for a very long time. Now that hackers can make botnets out of the internet of things, they have a more powerful tool to carry out attacks like the one that happened Friday. They used the botnet to send tons and tons of junk requests to Dyn, a company that manages web traffic for all the websites that were affected. Dyn couldn’t sort out the good requests from the bad, and as a result internet users in many parts of the US were cut off from a number of websites. Now you know how an army of DVRs and cameras kept you off Reddit for most of Friday. We still don’t know who the hackers are and what they’ll do next. It also remains to be seen how websites will change their habits to prevent outages like the ones we saw Friday. As for the manufacturers of internet-connected devices, there has been an interesting development. On Monday, connected-camera manufacturer Xiongmai said it will issue a recall of its devices caught up in the botnet army that attacked Dyn on Friday, according to Reuters. If more companies follow suit, it might give manufacturers more reason to lock down cybersecurity on their devices before putting them up for sale.

    Blog Entry, Cloud Apps, DATA
  • Posted on December 22, 2016 12:02 pm
    Joseph Forbes
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    In the early days of computers, storage was calculated in megabytes and most systems relied on floppy drives. With the rise of hard drives, people could store more data but it ws not very portable. CDs brought digital audio but also the means to provide high capacity portable storage that made it easy to share large amount of data and easy to install applications. DVDs expanded on that by bringing movies and TV shows and capacities well beyond what hard drives could even store. Now through a number of factors, finding a PC that includes any sort of optical drive is becoming very difficult. Rise of Smaller Mobile Computers Let's face it, optical discs are still quite large. At nearly five inches in diameter, the discs are big when compared to the size of modern laptops and now tablets. Even though the optical drives have been greatly reduced in size, more and more laptops have dropped the technology to conserve on space. Even though a large number of ultraportable computers have in the past dropped the drive in order to allow for thinner and lighter systems, the original MacBook Air showed just how thin a modern laptop could be without the drive. Now with the rise of tablets for computing, there is even less space to try and incorporate these large drives into the systems. Even if you are not talking about the size of the mobile computer, the space used up by an optical drive can be used for more practical things. After all, that space could be better used for the battery which can extend the overall running time of the system. If the system is designed for performance, it could store a new solid state drive in addition to a hard drive for added performance. Maybe the computer could use a better graphics solution that would be useful for graphics work or even gaming. Capacity Has Not Matched Other Technologies When CD drives first hit the market, they offered a huge storage capacity that rivaled traditional magnetic media of the day. After all, 650 megabytes of storage was well beyond what most hard drives were at the time. DVD expanded this capacity even further with 4.7 gigabytes of storage on the recordable formats. Blu-ray with its narrower optical beam can almost achieve 200 gigabytes but more practical consumer applications are generally much lower at 25 gigabytes. While the growth rate of these capacities is good, it is nowhere near the exponential growth that hard drives achieved. Optical storage is still stuck in the gigabytes while most hard drives are pushing even more terabytes. Using the CD, DVD and Blu-ray for storing data is just not worth it anymore. Terabyte drives are generally found for under a hundred dollars and offer faster access to your data. In fact, many people have more storage in their computers today than they are likely to use over the lifetime of the system. Solid state drives have also seen tremendous gains over the years. The flash memory used in these drives is the same that was found in the USB flash drives that made floppy technology obsolete. An 16GB USB flash drive can be found for under $10 yet stores more data than a dual layer DVD can. The SSD drives used within computers are still fairly expensive for their capacities but they are getting more and more practical every year such that they will likely replace hard drives in many computers thanks to their durability and low power consumption. Rise of Non-Physical Media With the rise of smartphones and their use as digital music players, the need for physical media distribution has slowly eroded. As more and more people started to listening to their music on these players and then their smartphones, they did not generally need a CD player other than to take their existing music collection and rip it into the MP3 format to listen on the new media players. Eventually, the ability to purchase the tracks through the iTunes store, Amazon MP3 store and other media outlets, the once ubiquitous physical media format has increasingly become irrelevant to the industry. Now that same problem that happened to CDs is also happening to the video industry. DVD sales made up a huge portion of the movie industries revenues. Over the years, sales of the discs have declined greatly. Some of this is likely from the ability to stream movies and TVs from services such as Netflix or Hulu. In addition, more and more movies can be purchased in a digital format from stores like iTunes and Amazon just like they can with music. This is extremely convenient especially for those people that want to use a tablet for watching video while traveling. Even the high definition Blu-ray media has failed to catch on compared to previous DVD sales. Even software which always used to be purchased on disc and then installed has moved into the digital distribution channels. Digital distribution for software is not a new idea as it was done years before the internet through shareware and bulletin board systems. Eventually, services such as Steam for PC games rose up and made it easy for consumers to purchase and download programs to use on their computers. The success of this model and that of iTunes lead many companies to start offering digital software distribution for computers. Tablets have taken this even further with their app stores built into the operating systems. Heck, even most modern PCs do not come with physical installation media anymore. Instead, they rely on a separate recovery partition and backups that are made by the consumer after the purchase of the system. Windows Lacks DVD Playback Natively Probably the biggest factor that will lead to the demise of the optical drive in PCs is Microsoft dropping support for DVD playback. In one of their developer blogs, they state that the base versions of the Windows 8 operating system will not include the software necessary for playing back DVD videos. This decision carried over to the latest Windows 10. This is a major development as it was a standard feature in previous versions of the operating system. Now, users will either have to purchase the Media Center pack for the OS or will need a separate playback software on top of the OS. The primary reason for this move has to do with costs. Apparently, Microsoft says that companies licensing the software were concerned about the overall cost of the software to be installed on the PCs. By removing the DVD playback software, the associated license fees for the video playback codecs can also be removed thus reducing the overall cost of the software. Of course, it will just be one more reason that consumers will likely abandon the hardware as it will be useless without the added software expense. HD Formats, DRM and compatibility Finally, the last nail in the coffin for optical media is the whole format wars and piracy concerns that have been plaguing the high definition formats. Originally, it was the battle between HD-DVD and Blu-ray that made adoption of the new format problematic as consumers waited for the format wars to be worked out. Blu-ray was the eventual winner of the two formats but it has not caught on hugely with consumers and much of this has to do with the DRM schema present and the difficulties of working with it. The Blu-ray specification has gone through multiple revision since it was first released. Many of the changes to the format have to do with piracy concerns from the studios. In order to prevent perfect digital copies from eating into sales, changes keep being introduced to make it more secure from being copies. This change has resulted in some newer discs from not being able to be played in older players. Thankfully computers have all the decoding done by software rather than hardware. This makes them more adaptable but it requires constant upgrading of the player software to ensure functionality with upcoming discs. The problem is that security requirements can change which may result in some older hardware or software from being able to view the videos. The end result is that it can be a major headache for the consumers who wish to have the new optical formats in their computers. In fact, users of the Apple software have it even worse as the company refuses to support the technology within the Mac OS X software. This makes the Blu-ray format all but irrelevant for the platform. Conclusions Now optical storage is not going to completely disappear from computers any time soon. It is just very clear that their primary usage is changing and is not a requirement for computers like they once were. Instead of being used for storing data, loading software or watching movies, the drives will likely be there to convert the physical media into the digital files for playback on computers and mobile devices. It is almost certain that the drives will be completely removed from most mobile computers in the near future. There is little use for the drives when it is so much easier to view them off a digital file than the disc. Desktops will still pack them for a while as the technology is so inexpensive to include and there are not the space issue of mobile computers. Of course, the market for external peripheral optical drives will survive for a while for anyone that still wants to have the capability that will be dropped from their future computers.

    Blog Entry, DATA, EDUCATION
  • Posted on December 21, 2016 11:59 am
    Joseph Forbes
    No comments

    Solid state drives or SSDs are the latest in high performance storage for computer systems. They offer much higher data transfer rates than traditional hard drives while consuming less energy and also having greater levels of reliability thanks to no moving parts. These attributes make them extremely attractive to those using mobile computers but they are also starting to make their way into high performance desktops as well. Features and performance can vary greatly in the solid state market. Because of this, it is very important to consider things carefully if you are purchasing a solid state drive for your computer. This article will take a look at some of the key features and how they can impact the performance and cost of drives to help buyers make a more informed purchasing decision. Interface The interface on the solid state drive is most likely going to be Serial ATA. Why will this interface be important than? Well, in order to get the highest performance out of the latest generation of solid state drives means that you will need to have a 6Gbps rated SATA interface. Older SATA interfaces will still offer strong performance especially compared to hard drives but they may not be able to achieve their highest levels of performance. Because of this, people with older SATA controllers in their computer may want to buy an older generation solid state drive that has rated maximum read and write speeds closer to their maximum interface speed in order to save some on costs. Another thing to remember is that interfaces are rated in gigabits per second while read and write times on drives are listed in megabytes per second. In order to determine the limitations on interfaces, I have listed the converted values below for the various SATA implementations for readers to better match drives to their PCs SATA versions: SATA III (6Gbps): 750MB/s SATA II (3Gbps): 375MB/s SATA I (1.5Gbps): 187.5MB/s Remember that these are the theoretical maximum throughputs for the various SATA interface standards. Once again, real world performance will typically be a lower than these ratings. For instance, most SATA III solid state drives peak between 500 and 600MB/s. Several new interface technologies are starting to make their way into personal computers but they are still in the very early stages. SATA Express is the primary interface that is set to replace SATA in the desktop market. The interface on the system is backward compatible with older SATA drives but you can not use a SATA Express drive with an older SATA interface. M.2 is an special interface that is really designed for use with mobile or thin computing applications but is being integrated into many new desktop motherboards. While it can use SATA technology, this is a very different interface that is more like a stick of memory slid into the slot. Both allow for faster speeds if the drives are designed to use the faster PCI-Expresstransmission methods. For SATA Express, this is roughly 2Gbps while M.2 can reach up to 4Gbps if it uses four PCI-Express lanes. Drive Height/Length Restrictions If you are planning of installing a solid state drive into a laptop to replace a hard drive you also have to be aware of the physical size limitations. For instance, 2.5-inch drives are typically available in multiple height ranges from as thin as 5mm all the way to 9.5mm. If your laptop can only fit up to 7.5mm height but you get a 9.5mm heigh drive, it will not fit. Similarly, most mSATA or M.2 card drives have length and height requirements. Be sure to check the maximum supported length and height for these as well before purchaing one to make sure it will fit in your system. For instance, some very thin laptops may only support single sided M.2 cards or mSATA cards. Capacity Capacity is a fairly easy concept to understand. A drive is rated by its overall data storage capacity. The overall capacity of solid state drives is still significantly less than what can be achieved with traditional hard drives. The price per gigabyte has been steadily dropping making them more affordable but they still lag behind hard drives significantly especially on the largest capacities. This can cause issues for those that want to store a lot of data on their solid state drive. Typical ranges for solid state drives are between 64GB and 4TB. The problem is that capacity in solid state drives can also play an important role in the performance of the drive as well. Two drives in the same product line with different capacities will likely have different performance. This has to do with the number and type of memory chips on the drive. Typically, capacity is linked to the number of chips. So, a 240GB SSD may have twice the number of NAND chips as a 120GB drive. This allows the drive to spread out the read and writes of the data between the chips which effectively increases performance similar to how RAID can work with multiple hard drives. Now the performance will not be twice as fast because of the overhead of managing the read and writes but it can be significant. Be sure to look at the rated speed specifications for the drive at the capacity level you are looking at to get the best idea of how the capacity might have an impact on performance. Controller / Firmware The performance of a solid state drive can be greatly impacted by the controller and the firmware that are installed on the drive. Some of the companies that make SSD controllers include Intel, Sandforce, Indilinx (now owned by Toshiba), Marvel, Silicon Motion, Toshiba and Samsung. Each of these companies also has multiple controllers available for use with solid state drives. So, why does this matter? Well the controller is responsible for handling the data management between the various memory chips. The controllers can also determine the overall capacity for the drive based on the number of channels for chips. Comparing controllers is not something that is easy to do. Unless you are extremely technical, all it will really do is let you know if a drive is a current or past generation solid state drive. For example, the Sandforce SF-2000 is a newer controller generation than the SF-1000. This should mean that the newer one can support larger capacities and have higher performance. The problem is that two drives from different companies can have the same controller but still have vastly different performance. This is due to the firmware that is included with the SSDs in addition to the specific memory chips they may use. One firmware may emphasis data management differently than another that can boost its performance for specific types of data compared to another. Because of this, it is important to examine the rated speeds in addition to the controller itself. Write / Read Speeds Since solid state drives offer significant performance speeds over hard drives, the read and write speeds are particularly important to look at when buying a drive. There are two different types of read and write operations but most manufacturers will only list the sequential read and write speeds. This is done because sequential speeds are faster thanks to the larger data blocks. The other type is random data access. This typically consists of multiple small data reads and writes that are slower because they require more operations. The manufacturer speed ratings are a good basic measure for comparing solid state drives. Be warned though that the ratings are at their best under the manufacturer testing. Real world performance will likely be below the ratings given. This has to do partly with the various aspects discussed later in the article but also because data can be influenced by other sources. For instance, copying data from a hard drive to a solid state drive will limit the maximum write speeds for the SSD to how fast the data can be read from the hard drive. Write Cycles One issue that buyers of solid state drives might not be aware of is that fact that the memory chips inside of them have a limited number of erase cycles they can support. Over time the cells within the chip will eventually fail. Typically, the manufacturer of the memory chips will have a rated number of cycles that they are guaranteed for. To mitigate the failure of the chips being worn out from constant erasing of specific cells, the controller and firmware will not immediately erase old deleted data. The average consumer will probably not see a solid state drive's memory chips fail within the typical lifetime (upwards of five years) of their system. This is because they don't typically have high read and write tasks. Someone doing heavy database or editing work might see higher write levels though. Because of this, they may want to take into account the rated number of write cycles that a drive is rated for. Most drives will have ratings somewhere in the 3000 to 5000 erase cycles. The larger than cycles, the longer the drive should last. Sadly, many companies are not listing this information anymore on their drives instead requiring users to judge expected life of the drives based upon the warranty lengths provided by the manufacturers. TRIM / Cleanup A process of garbage collection can be used within the firmware to try and cleanup the drive for improve performance. The problem is that if the garbage collection within the drive is too aggressive, it can cause write amplification and shorten the lifespan of the memory chips. Conversely, a conservative garbage collection may extend the life of the drive but significantly reduce the overall performance of the drive. TRIM is a command function that lets the operating system better manage the data cleanup within the solid state memory. It essentially keeps track of what data is in use and what is free to be erased. This has the benefit of keeping the performance of the drive up while not adding to the write amplification that leads to early degradation. Because of this, it is important to get a TRIM compatible drive if your operating system supports the function. Windows has supported this feature since Windows 7 while Apple has supported it since OS X version 10.7 or Lion. Bare Drives vs. Kits The majority of solid state drives are just sold with the drive. This is fine because if you are building a new machine or just adding extra storage to a system, you don't need anything more than just the drive. If however, you are planning on upgrading an older computer from a traditional hard drive to a solid state drive, then you might want to look into getting a kit. Most drive kits include some additional physical items such as a 3.5-inch drive bracket for installing into desktops, SATA cables and most important cloning tools. To properly get the benefits of a solid state drive as a replacement, it must take the place as the boot drive of the existing system. To do this, a SATA to USB cable is provided to allow the drive to be attached to an existing computer system. Then a cloning software is installed to basically mirror the existing hard drive onto the solid state drive. Once that process it complete, the old hard drive can be removed from the system and the solid state drive put in its place. A kit will generally add around $20 to $50 to the cost of the drive.

    Blog Entry, DATA, MONEY
  • Posted on June 23, 2016 7:00 pm
    Joseph Forbes
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    NETGEAR routers usually have a default password of password and a default IP address of either 192.168.1.1or 192.168.0.1 but there are plenty of exceptions, show in the table below. More help is below the tableif you don't see your NETGEAR device listed here, the listed default data doesn't work, you need help changing the password once in, or have other questions. NETGEAR Default Passwords (Valid June 2016) NETGEAR Model Default Username Default Password Default IP Address AC1450 admin password 192.168.1.1 C3000 admin password 192.168.0.1 C3700 admin password 192.168.0.1 C6250 admin password 192.168.0.1 C6300 admin password 192.168.0.1 C7000 admin password 192.168.0.1 CG3300D admin password 192.168.0.1 CG814M admin password 192.168.0.1 CGD24G admin password 192.168.0.1 D6200 admin password 192.168.1.1 D6400 admin password 192.168.0.1 D7000 admin password 192.168.0.1 D7800 admin password 192.168.1.1 DB834GT admin password 192.168.0.1 DG632 admin password 192.168.0.1 DG814 admin password 192.168.0.1 DG824M admin password 192.168.0.1 DG834 admin password 192.168.0.1 DG834G admin password 192.168.0.1 DG834GV admin password 192.168.0.1 DG834N admin password 192.168.0.1 DG834PN admin password 192.168.0.1 DGFV338 admin password 192.168.1.1 DGN1000 admin password 192.168.0.1 DGN2000 admin password 192.168.0.1 DGN2200 admin password 192.168.0.1 DGN2200M admin password 192.168.0.1 DGN3500 admin password 192.168.0.1 DGNB2100 admin password 192.168.0.1 DGND3300 admin password 192.168.0.1 DGND3700 admin password 192.168.1.1 DGND4000 admin password 192.168.1.1 DM111P admin password 192.168.0.1 DM111PSP admin password 192.168.0.1 FM114P admin password 192.168.0.1 FR114P admin password 192.168.0.1 FR114W admin password 192.168.0.1 FR314 admin password 192.168.0.1 FR318 admin password 192.168.0.1 FR328S admin password 192.168.0.1 FS116E [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 FS526T [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 FS726T [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 FS726TP [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 FS728TP [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 FS728TS [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 FS750T [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 FS750T2 [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 FS752TPS [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 FS752TS [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 FSM7226RS admin [none] DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 FSM7250RS admin [none] DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 FSM726 admin 12342 DHCP1 FSM726 admin [none]2 DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 FSM726E admin [none] DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 FSM726S admin 1234 DHCP1 FSM7326P admin [none] DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 FSM7328PS admin [none] DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 FSM7328S admin [none] DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 FSM7352PS admin [none] DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 FSM7352S admin [none] DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 FSM750S admin 1234 DHCP1 FV318 admin password 192.168.0.1 FVL328 admin password 192.168.0.1 GS105E [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 GS108E [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 GS108PE [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 GS108T [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 GS110TP [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 GS116E [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 GS716T [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 GS724AT [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 GS724T [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 GS724TP [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 GS724TPS [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 GS724TR [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 GS724TS [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 GS748AT [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 GS748T [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 GS748TP [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 GS748TPS [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 GS748TR [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 GS748TS [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 GSM712 admin password DHCP1 GSM712F admin password DHCP1 GSM7212 admin [none] DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 GSM7224 admin [none] DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 GSM7224R admin [none] DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 GSM7228PS admin [none] DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 GSM7248 admin [none] DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 GSM7248R admin [none] DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 GSM7252PS admin [none] DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 GSM7312 admin [none] DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 GSM7324 admin [none] DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 GSM7328FS admin [none] DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 GSM7328S admin [none] DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 GSM7352S admin [none] DHCP1 / 169.254.100.100 HR314 admin password 192.168.0.1 JFS524E [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 JGS524E [none] password DHCP1 / 192.168.0.239 JNR3210 admin password 192.168.1.1 JWNR2000 admin password 192.168.1.1 KWGR614 admin password 192.168.1.1 MBM621 admin password 192.168.1.1 MBR1210 admin password 192.168.0.1 MBR624GU admin password 192.168.0.1 MBRN3000 admin password 192.168.0.1 MR314 admin 1234 192.168.0.1 MR814 admin password 192.168.0.1 N450 admin password 192.168.0.1 R6050 admin password 192.168.1.1 R6100 admin password 192.168.1.1 R6200 admin password 192.168.1.1 R6220 admin password 192.168.1.1 R6250 admin password 192.168.1.1 R6300 admin password 192.168.1.1 R6400 admin password 192.168.1.1 R6700 admin password 192.168.1.1 R7000 admin password 192.168.1.1 R7500 admin password 192.168.1.1 R7800 admin password 192.168.1.1 R7900 admin password 192.168.1.1 R8000 admin password 192.168.1.1 R8500 admin password 192.168.1.1 RH340 [none] [none] 192.168.0.1 RH348 [none] 1234 192.168.0.1 RM356 [none] 1234 192.168.0.1 RO318 admin 1234 192.168.0.1 RP114 admin 1234 192.168.0.1 RP614 admin password 192.168.0.13 RP614 admin password 192.168.1.13 RT311 admin 1234 192.168.0.1 RT314 admin 1234 192.168.0.1 RT328 [none] 1234 192.168.0.1 RT338 [none] 1234 192.168.0.1 WGM124 admin password 192.168.1.1 WGR101 admin password 192.168.0.1 WGR612 admin password 192.168.1.1 WGR614 admin password 192.168.0.14 WGR614 admin password 192.168.1.14 WGR614L admin password 192.168.1.1 WGR826V admin password 192.168.15.1 WGT624 admin password 192.168.0.15 WGT624 admin password 192.168.1.15 WGT624SC admin password 192.168.1.1 WGT634U admin password 192.168.1.1 WGU624 admin password 192.168.1.1 WNDR3300 admin password 192.168.1.1 WNDR3400 admin password 192.168.1.1 WNDR3700 admin password 192.168.1.1 WNDR37AV admin password 192.168.1.1 WNDR3800 admin password 192.168.1.1 WNDR4000 admin password 192.168.1.1 WNDR4300 admin password 192.168.1.1 WNDR4500 admin password 192.168.1.1 WNDR4700 admin password 192.168.1.1 WNDR4720 admin password 192.168.1.1 WNR1000 admin password 192.168.1.1 WNR1500 admin password 192.168.1.1 WNR2000 admin password 192.168.1.1 WNR2020 admin password 192.168.1.1 WNR2200 admin password 192.168.1.1 WNR2500 admin password 192.168.1.1 WNR3500 admin password 192.168.1.1 WNR3500L admin password 192.168.1.1 WNR612 admin password 192.168.1.1 WNR834B admin password 192.168.1.1 WNR834M admin password 192.168.1.1 WNR854T admin password 192.168.1.1 WNXR2000 admin password 192.168.1.1 WPN824 admin password 192.168.1.1 WPN824N admin password 192.168.1.1 WPNT834 admin password 192.168.1.1 [1] These NETGEAR switches have default IP addresses that are assigned via DHCP, meaning that the IP address will be different depending on the network the switches are installed on, information that you can get by checking thedynamic IP address that the DHCP server (often times the router on the network) has assgined to it. The IP address listed next to some of the DHCP-assigned default IP addresses in the table above are the default IP addresses if and only if there is no DHCP device on the network or there was an issue assigning an IP. [2] The NETGEAR FSM726 network switch comes in three hardware versions. Version 1 & 2 both have a default password of 1234 while version 3 does not require a default password at all (i.e. leave it blank) and has a backup default IP of 169.254.100.100 if there's no automatic assignment by a DHCP server. [3] NETGEAR RP614 routers come in several hardware versions. Versions 1, 2, and 3 all have the default IP address of 192.168.0.1 while version 4 and later all have the default IP of 192.168.1.1. [4] Versions 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 of the NETGEAR WGR614 router have a default IP address of 192.168.0.1. Versions 6 and later have the default IP address of 192.168.1.1. [5] WGT624 routers manufactured with hardware version 1 or 2 have a default IP address of 192.168.0.1 while editions with version 3 or later have a default IP of 192.168.1.1. Please let me know if you don't see your NETGEAR router, switch, or other network device listed in the table above. I'd be happy to send you the default data I find and then get it added to the list. First Things First: Change Your NEGEAR Default Password! It's kind of nice that you got in to your NETGEAR router or switch with the default data but keep in mind, as you may have suddenly realized looking at my table above, this information is all public! That means that anyone could have accessed your NETGEAR device all this time, made whatever changes he or she wanted, including injecting some clever malware, among other damage. So, first thing on your to-do list now is to change that default password to something much harder to guess by anyone other than you. What to Do if the NETGEAR Default Password Doesn't Work The only course of action when the NETGEAR default password for your device is no longer the configured password is to reset your device to factory defaults. On most NETGEAR routers, the factory reset process is pretty simple. Using a pen or a paperclip end, press and hold the red Restore Factory Settings button, found on the bottom of your router. Do this when the router is powered on and keep it pressed in for 10 seconds, or until the power light starts to blink. Once you release the button, your NETGEAR device will restart automatically. After the power light turns solid white or green, your device is reset and back up and running, now with the default password listed above for your model. If that process doesn't work, you'll need to reference the PDF manual for your specific NETGEAR router, available from NETGEAR Support. What to Do if the NETGEAR Default IP Address Doesn't Work A factory reset also resets the IP address to the default you'll find for your model in the table above. Another option is to try http://www.routerlogin.com or http://www.routerlogin.net, two addresses that only work, assuming they do at all, on your local network and only on your NETGEAR device.

    Blog Entry, DATA, Hardware
  • Posted on June 21, 2016 7:00 pm
    Joseph Forbes
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    Most routers and switches by Cisco have default passwords of admin or cisco, and default IP addresses of 192.168.1.1 or 192.168.1.254 but some differ, shown in the table below. Important: Remember to change the default login data once you're in! See below the table for more help, including what to do if you don't see your Cisco device or the default data below doesn't work. Cisco Default Passwords (Valid June 2016) Cisco Model Default Username Default Password Default IP Address ESW-520-24-K9 cisco cisco 192.168.10.2 ESW-520-24P-K9 cisco cisco 192.168.10.2 ESW-520-48-K9 cisco cisco 192.168.10.2 ESW-520-48P-K9 cisco cisco 192.168.10.2 ESW-520-8P-K9 cisco cisco 192.168.10.2 ESW-540-24-K9 cisco cisco 192.168.10.2 ESW-540-24P-K9 cisco cisco 192.168.10.2 ESW-540-48-K9 cisco cisco 192.168.10.2 ESW-540-8P-K9 cisco cisco 192.168.10.2 RV016 admin admin 192.168.1.1 RV042 admin admin 192.168.1.1 RV042G admin admin 192.168.1.1 RV082 admin admin 192.168.1.1 RV110W cisco cisco 192.168.1.1 RV120W admin admin 192.168.1.1 RV130 cisco cisco 192.168.1.1 RV130W cisco cisco 192.168.1.1 RV132W cisco cisco 192.168.1.1 RV134W cisco cisco 192.168.1.1 RV180 cisco cisco 192.168.1.1 RV180W cisco cisco 192.168.1.1 RV215W cisco cisco 192.168.1.1 RV220W cisco cisco 192.168.1.1 RV320 cisco cisco 192.168.1.1 RV325 cisco cisco 192.168.1.1 RVL200 admin admin 192.168.1.1 RVS4000 admin admin 192.168.1.1 SF300-08 cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SF300-24 cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SF300-24P cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SF300-48 cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SF300-48P cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SF302-08 cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SF302-08MP cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SF302-08P cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SFE1000P admin [none] DHCP1 SFE2000 admin admin 192.168.1.254 SFE2000P admin admin 192.168.1.254 SFE2010 admin admin 192.168.1.254 SFE2010P admin admin 192.168.1.254 SG200-08 cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SG200-08P cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SG200-26 cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SG200-50 cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SG300-10 cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SG300-10MP cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SG300-10P cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SG300-20 cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SG300-28 cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SG300-28P cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SG300-52 cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SG500-28 cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SG500-52 cisco cisco 192.168.1.254 SGE2000 admin admin 192.168.1.254 SGE2000P admin admin 192.168.1.254 SGE2010 admin admin 192.168.1.254 SGE2010P admin admin 192.168.1.254 SLM2005 admin admin 192.168.1.254 SLM2008 admin admin 192.168.1.254 SLM2024 admin admin 192.168.1.254 SLM2048 admin admin 192.168.1.254 SLM224G admin admin 192.168.1.254 SLM224G4PS admin admin 192.168.1.254 SLM224G4S admin admin 192.168.1.254 SLM224P admin admin 192.168.1.254 SLM248G admin admin 192.168.1.254 SLM248G4PS admin admin 192.168.1.254 SLM248G4S admin admin 192.168.1.254 SLM248P admin admin 192.168.1.254 SPA2102 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 SPA3102 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 SPA8000 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 SPA8800 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 SRP520 admin admin 192.168.15.1 SRP520-U admin admin 192.168.15.1 SRW2008 admin [none] 192.168.1.254 SRW2008MP admin [none] 192.168.1.254 SRW2008P admin [none] 192.168.1.254 SRW2016 admin [none] 192.168.1.254 SRW2024 admin [none] 192.168.1.254 SRW2024P admin [none] 192.168.1.254 SRW2048 admin [none] 192.168.1.254 SRW208 admin [none] 192.168.1.254 SRW208G admin [none] 192.168.1.254 SRW208L admin [none] 192.168.1.254 SRW208MP admin [none] 192.168.1.254 SRW208P admin [none] 192.168.1.254 SRW224G4 admin [none] 192.168.1.254 SRW224G4P admin [none] 192.168.1.254 SRW224P admin [none] 192.168.1.254 SRW248G4 admin [none] 192.168.1.254 SRW248G4P admin [none] 192.168.1.254 Valet (M10)2 admin admin 192.168.1.1 Valet Plus (M20)2 admin admin 192.168.1.1 WRP400 admin admin 192.168.15.1 WRV200 admin admin 192.168.1.1 WRV210 admin admin 192.168.1.1 WRV54G admin admin 192.168.1.1 WRVS4400N admin admin 192.168.1.1 [1] The Cisco SFE1000P switch's default IP address is assigned via DHCP, meaning that it'll be different depending on the network that it's installed in. The easiest way to determine the IP address for your SFE1000P is to log in to the router or DHCP server that assigned the dynamic IP and look for it in the list of attached devices. [2] The Cisco Valet M10 & Valet M20 routers are actually supported by Linksys. Cisco owned Linksys from 2003 through 2013 and branded the Valet routers with their Cisco name and logo. If you can't find your Cisco device in the table above, just let me know and I'll look up the default login information for it and let you know. It also helps me out because then I can add it to the list for others. Next Steps If the Cisco Default Login or IP Above Doesn't Work Unless I just completely messed something up for the Cisco device you're looking at above, if the default username and/or password doesn't work, it means that it's been changed. Unlike residential routers, the business and enterprise class routers and switches that Cisco is known for have specific password recovery features, meaning that a full factory reset (the typical reset-a-password process) isn't required. See the Cisco Password Recovery Procedures page for a by-device listing of the specific steps to take to restore the default password for your device. You'll need physical access to the Cisco router or switch in question, as well as a computer to use to connect to the device. If you're having trouble locating the password recovery steps for your device, Cisco Support has a PDF manual for every device they've ever sold which includes help in this area too. Most network devices operate with the default IP address they come with but routers, and especially switches, in business and enterprise environments are often changed when installed.

    DATA, Hardware, KnowledgeBase (KB)
  • Posted on June 19, 2016 7:00 pm
    Joseph Forbes
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    D-Link routers almost never require a default password and usually use the default IP address of 192.168.0.1 but there are exceptions, as you can see in the table below. Important: Don't forget to configure a router password once you've gotten in. See below the table for more help if the default data below doesn't work, you don't see your D-Link device, or you have other questions. D-Link Default Passwords (Valid June 2016) D-Link Model Default Username Default Password Default IP Address DAP-1350 admin [none] 192.168.0.50 DFL-300 admin admin 192.168.1.1 DGL-4100 [none] [none] 192.168.0.1 DGL-4300 [none] [none] 192.168.0.1 DGL-4500 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DGL-5500 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DHP-1320 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DHP-1565 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-514 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-524 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-604 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-614+ admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-624 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-624M admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-624S admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-634M1 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-634M1 user [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-7012 [none] [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-7012 [none] year2000 192.168.0.1 DI-704 [none] admin 192.168.0.1 DI-704P [none] admin 192.168.0.1 DI-704UP admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-707 [none] admin 192.168.0.1 DI-707P admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-711 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-713 [none] admin 192.168.0.1 DI-713P [none] admin 192.168.0.1 DI-714 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-714P+ admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-724GU Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-724U admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-754 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-764 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-774 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-784 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-804 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-804HV admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-804V admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-808HV admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-824VUP admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DI-LB604 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-130 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-330 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-412 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-450 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-451 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-501 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-505 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-505L Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-506L admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-510L [none] [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-515 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-600 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-600L admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-601 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-605 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-605L admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-615 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-625 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-626L Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-628 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-635 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-636L Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-645 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-651 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-655 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-657 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-660 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-665 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-685 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-808L Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-810L Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-813 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-815 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-817LW Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-817LW/D Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-818LW Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-820L Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-825 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-826L Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-827 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-830L admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-835 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-836L Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-842 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-850L admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-855 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-855L admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-857 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-859 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-860L admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-865L admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-866L admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-868L admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-879 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-880L Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-885L/R admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-890L/R Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DIR-895L/R Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 DSA-31003 admin admin 192.168.0.40 DSA-31003 manager manager 192.168.0.40 DSA-3200 admin admin 192.168.0.40 DSA-51003 admin admin 192.168.0.40 DSA-51003 manager manager 192.168.0.40 DSR-1000 admin admin 192.168.10.1 DSR-1000N admin admin 192.168.10.1 DSR-250N admin admin 192.168.10.1 DSR-500 admin admin 192.168.10.1 DSR-500N admin admin 192.168.10.1 EBR-2310 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 GO-RT-N300 Admin [none] 192.168.0.1 KR-1 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 TM-G5240 [none] admin 192.168.0.1 WBR-1310 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 WBR-2310 admin [none] 192.168.0.1 [1] The D-Link DI-634M router has two default access accounts, an administrator-level account (username of admin) that you should use for router management as well a user-level account (username of user) that can be used to viewing data but not making changes. [2] D-Link DI-701 routers have an administrator-level default account (no username or password required), as well as another administrator-level account for ISPs called Super Admin (no username with a password of year2000) that grants the additional ability to set a user limit via the usrlimit command, available in the router's terminal mode. [3] These D-Link routers, the DSA-3100 & the DS-5100, have default administrator accounts (admin / admin) as well as default "manager" accounts (manager / manager) which are restricted to adding and managing additional user access accounts. Can't find your D-Link network device in the table above? Just send me an email with the model number and I'd be happy to look it up, let you know, and add it to the list for everyone else. When the D-Link Default Password or Username Won't Work... There are no secret back doors to your D-Link router or other network device, meaning that if the default password has been changed and you don't know what it is, you're locked out. Period. The solution, then, is to reset the entire D-Link device to factory settings, resetting the password to its default and erasing any wireless network or other settings. Performing a factory reset on a D-Link router is pretty easy. Turn on the device, press and hold the Reset button (usually on the back of the device) with a paper clip or small pen for10 seconds and then release it. Wait a few more minutes for the router to finish booting. If the factory default reset doesn't work, or you can't find that reset button, check your device's manual for specific instructions. A PDF version of your device's manual can be found at D-Link Support. When the D-Link Default IP Address Won't Work... Assuming that your D-Link router is powered on and connected to your network, but the default IP address listed above isn't working, try opening a browser window and connecting to http://dlinkrouterWXYZ with WXYZ being the last four characters of the device's MAC address. All D-Link devices have their MAC addresses printed on a sitcker that's located on the bottom of the device. So, for example, if your D-Link router's MAC address is 13-C8-34-35-BA-30, you'd go to http://dlinkrouterBA30 to access your router. If that trick doesn't work, and your D-Link router has been connected to a computer, the configured default gateway will almost always equal the access IP address for your router.

    Blog Entry, DATA, KnowledgeBase (KB)
  • Posted on June 8, 2016 2:00 pm
    Joseph Forbes
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    We all make mistakes running our websites. However, the nature of those mistakes varies depending on the size of your company. As your organization grows, the mistakes change. This post addresses common mistakes among large organizations. Most of the clients I work with are large organizations: universities, large charities, public sector institutions and large companies. Over the last 7 years, I have noticed certain recurring misconceptions among these organizations. This post aims to dispel these illusions and encourage people to face the harsh reality. The problem is that if you are reading this post, you are probably already aware of these things. But hopefully this article will be helpful to you as you convince others within your organization. In any case, here are our 10 harsh truths about websites of large organizations. 1. You Need A Separate Web Division Link In many organizations, the website is managed by either the marketing or IT department. However, this inevitably leads to a turf war, with the website becoming the victim of internal politics. In reality, pursuing a Web strategy is not particularly suited to either group. IT may be excellent at rolling out complex systems, but it is not suited to developing a friendly user experience or establishing an online brand. Zeldman urges organisations to create a separate web division. Marketing, on the other hand, is little better. As Jeffrey Zeldman puts it in his article Let there be Web divisions: The Web is a conversation. Marketing, by contrast, is a monologue… And then there’s all that messy business with semantic markup, CSS, unobtrusive scripting, card-sorting exercises, HTML run-throughs, involving users in accessibility, and the rest of the skills and experience that don’t fall under Marketing’s purview. Instead, the website should be managed by a single unified team. Again, Zeldman sums it up when he writes: Put them in a division that recognizes that your website is not a bastard of your brochures, nor a natural outgrowth of your group calendar. Let there be Web divisions. 2. Managing Your Website Is A Full-Time Job Link Not only is the website often split between marketing and IT, it is also usually under-resourced. Instead of there being a dedicated Web team, those responsible for the website are often expected to run it alongside their “day job.” When a Web team is in place, it is often over-stretched. The vast majority of its time is spent on day-to-day maintenance rather than longer-term strategic thinking. This situation is further aggravated by the fact that the people hired to “maintain” the website are junior members of the staff. They do not have the experience or authority to push the website forward. It is time for organizations to seriously invest in their websites byhiring full-time senior Web managers to move their Web strategies forward. 3. Periodic Redesign Is Not Enough Link Because corporate websites are under-resourced, they are often neglected for long periods of time. They slowly become out of date with their content, design and technology. Eventually, the website becomes such an embarrassment that management steps in and demands that it be sorted. This inevitably leads to a complete redesign at considerable expense. As I point out in the Website Owners Manual, this a flawed approach. It is a waste of money because when the old website is replaced, the investment put into it is lost, too. It is also tough on finances, with a large expenditure having to be made every few years. Cameron Moll encourages web designers to realign their website rather than redesign. A better way is continual investment in your website, allowing it to evolve over time. Not only is this less wasteful, it is also better for users, as pointed out by Cameron Moll in his post Good Designers Redesign, Great Designers Realign. 4. Your Website Cannot Appeal To Everyone Link One of the first questions I ask a client is, “Who is your target audience?” I am regularly shocked at the length of the reply. Too often, it includes a long and detailed list of diverse people. Inevitably, my next question is, “Which of those many demographic groups are most important?” Depressingly, the answer is usually that they are all equally important. The harsh truth is that if you build a website for everyone, it will appeal to no one. It is important to be extremely focused about your audience and cater your design and content to it. Does this mean you should ignore your other users? Not at all. Your website should be accessible by all and not offend or exclude anybody. However, the website does need to be primarily aimed at a clearly defined audience. 5. You Are Wasting Money On Social Networking Link I find it encouraging that website managers increasingly recognize that a Web strategy is more than running a website. They are beginning to use tools such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube to increase their reach and engage with new audiences. However, although they are using these tools, too often they do so ineffectively. Tweeting on a corporate account or posting sales demonstrations on YouTube misses the essence of social networking. Microsoft dramatically improved its image amoung the development community by allowing Microsoft staff to speak out via the Channel 9 website. Social networking is about people engaging with people. Individuals do not want to build relationships with brands and corporations. They want to talk to other people. Too many organizations throw millions into Facebook apps and viral videos when they could spend that money on engaging with people in a transparent and open away. Instead of creating a corporate Twitter account or indeed even a corporate blog, encourage your employees to start Tweeting and blogging themselves. Provide guidelines on acceptable behavior and what tools they need to start engaging directly with the community connected to your products and services. This demonstrates not only your commitment to the community but also the human side of your business. 6. Your Website Is Not All About You Link Where some website managers want their website to appeal to everybody, others want it to appeal to themselves and their colleagues. A surprising number of organizations ignore their users entirely and base their websites entirely on an organizational perspective. This typically manifests itself in inappropriate design that caters to the managing director’s personal preferences and contains content full of jargon. A website should not pander to the preferences of staff but should rather meet the needs of its users. Too many designs are rejected because the boss “doesn’t like green.” Likewise, too much website copy contains acronyms and terms used only within the organization. 7. You’re Not Getting Value From Your Web Team Link Whether they have an in-house Web team or use an external agency, many organizations fail to get the most from their Web designers. Web designers are much more than pixel pushers. They have a wealth of knowledge about the Web and how users interact with it. They also understand design techniques, including grid systems, white space, color theory and much more. Treating designers as pixel pushers wastes their design experience: post from Twitter complaining about being a pixel pusher It is therefore wasteful to micro-manage by asking them to “make the logo bigger” or to “move that 3 pixels to the left.” By doing so, you are reducing their role to that of a software operator and wasting the wealth of experience they bring. If you want to get the maximum return on your Web team, present it with problems, not solutions. For example, if you’re targeting your website at teenage girls, and the designer goes for corporate blue, suggest that your audience might not respond well to that color. Do not tell him or her to change it to pink. This way, the designer has the freedom to find a solution that may even be better than your choice. You allow your designer to solve the problem you have presented. 8. Design By Committee Brings Death Link The ultimate symbol of a large organization’s approach to website management is the committee. A committee is often formed to tackle the website because internal politics demand that everybody has a say and all considerations be taken into account. To say that all committees are a bad idea is naive, and to suggest that a large corporate website could be developed without consultation is fanciful. However, when it comes to design, committees are often the kiss of death. Design by committee leads to design on the fly. Design is subjective. The way we respond to a design can be influenced by culture, gender, age, childhood experience and even physical conditions (such as color blindness). What one person considers great design could be hated by another. This is why it is so important that design decisions be informed by user testing rather than personal experience. Unfortunately, this approach is rarely taken when a committee is involved in design decisions. Instead, designing by committee becomes about compromise. Because committee members have different opinions about the design, they look for ways to find common ground. One person hates the blue color scheme, while another loves it. This leads to designing on the fly, with the committee instructing the designer to “try a different blue” in the hopes of finding middle ground. Unfortunately, this leads only to bland design that neither appeals to nor excites anyone. 9. A CMS Is Not A Silver Bullet Link Many of the clients I work with have amazingly unrealistic expectations of CMS (content management systems). Those without one think it will solve all of their content woes, while those who have one moan about it because it hasn’t! It is certainly true that a CMS can bring a lot of benefits. These include: reducing the technical barriers of adding content, allowing more people to add and edit content, facilitating faster updates, and allowing greater control. However, many CMS are less flexible than their owners would like. They fail to meet the changing demands of the websites they manage. Website managers also complain that their CMS is hard to use. However, in many cases, this is because those using it have not been adequately trained or are not using it regularly enough. Finally, a CMS may allow content to be easily updated, but it does not ensure that content will be updated or even that the quality of content will be acceptable. Many CMS-based websites still have out-of-date content or poorly written copy. This is because internal processes have not been put in place to support the content contributors. If you look to a CMS to solve your website maintenance issues, you will be disappointed. 10. You Have Too Much Content Link Part of the problem with content maintenance on large corporate websites is that there is too much content in the first place. Most of these websites have “evolved” over years, with more and more content having been added. At no stage has anybody reviewed the content and asked what could be taken away. Many website managers fill their website with copy that nobody will read. This happens because of: A fear of missing something: by putting everything online, they believe users will be able to find whatever they want. Unfortunately, with so much information available, it is hard to find anything. A fear users will not understand: whether from a lack of confidence in their website or in their audience, they feel the need to provide endless instruction to users. Unfortunately, users never read this copy. A desperate desire to convince: they are desperate to sell their product or communicate their message, and so they bloat the text with sales copy that actually conveys little valuable information. Steve Krug, in his book Don’t Make Me Think, encourages website managers to “Get rid of half the words on each page, then get rid of half of what’s left.” This will reduce the noise level on each page and make the useful content more prominent. Conclusions Link Large organizations do a lot right in running their websites. However, they also face some unique challenges that can lead to painful mistakes. Resolving these problems means accepting that mistakes have been made, overcoming internal politics and changing the way you control your brand. Doing so will give you a significant competitive advantage and allow your Web strategy to become more effective over the long term.

    Blog Entry, DATA, Internet